Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 1

Importance of Angles for Load Lines and Segmental Arrangement of the Spine in Biomechanics for Lumbar Health

Alireza Kazemi B*

Department of Physical Therapy, Instituto de Fisioterapia y Deporte (Physical Therapy and Sport) Guadalajara, Spain

*Corresponding Author: Alireza Kazemi B, Department of Physical Therapy, Instituto de Fisioterapia y Deporte (Physical Therapy and Sport) Guadalajara, Spain.

Received: September 21, 2022; Published: December 02, 2022


This article aims to emphasize the structural composition of the spine, its components, arrangement of segments, geometric characteristics, possible responses its related components and action of forces according to physical laws in the static and dynamics of the musculoskeletal system. All of the above based on the importance of back pain and especially the lumbar spine with ahigh incidence and prevalence. The scientific world through various publications reports the existence of vertebral pain in 3 out of 4 subjects of different origins with a huge economic cost for industrialized countries ranging from 1.7% to 2.4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of each country. Preventive and therapeutic actions require an exhaustive assessment of all the tissues that make up and intervene in the static and dynamics of the musculoskeletal system and in particular the spine. Their static and dynamic interactions depend on the angles of the segments depending on their geometries. This study will fulfill its objective if it manages to arouse the interest of the scientific world towards all the sections that have been the subject of a review of studies cited in this article for future implementation without waiting for early degenerative processes.

Keywords: Load Lines; Segmental; Spine; Biomechanics; Lumbar; Health


  1. Wall P. “Low back pain: Epidemiology, anatomy and neurophysiology”. Textbook of pain. Edingurg (1994).
  2. Pérez-Gusado J. “Contribution to the study of non-specific low back pain”. Revista Cubana de Ortopedia y Traumatología 2 (2006).
  3. García-Pérez F and Alcántara-Bumbiedro S. “Importance of physical exercise in the treatment of non-specific low back pain”. Rehabilitation 6 (2003): 323-332.
  4. Bosch-Martín A and Spottomo-Rubio M. “Physical exercise and Health: guidelines for action”. Madrid: Centro de Medicina Deportiva (2015).
  5. Ansede-Alonso J., et al. “Pathology of the musculoskeletal system (2007).
  6. Martinez-Garcia F. “Epidemiology”. In Consensus document. Back pain: Symptoms and treatment (2016): 15. EDITTEC.
  7. Valero-deBernabé-Calle ME. “Chronic low back pain in the Spanish population. Associated factors and quality of life according to the ENS 2011. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Dissertation (2011).
  8. Carbonell-Tabeni R. “Low back pain contingency dertemination”. ASEPEYO (2010).
  9. Bederman S., et al. “The who, what and when of surgery for the degenerative lumbar spine: a population-based study of surgeon factors, surigical procedures, recent trends and reopreation rates”. Canadian Journal of Surgery 52 (2009): 283-290.
  10. Kapandji I. “Cuadernos de fisiología articular (Second Edition edition., Vol. 3)”. (E. Martinez, Trad.) Barcelona: Masson (1996).
  11. Miralles R. “Biomechanics of the spine”. Revista de la Sociedad Española de Dolor11 (2001): 2-8.
  12. Chaitow L and Walker-DeLany J. “Clinical application of neuromuscular techniques (First edition., Vol. 1)”. Barcelona: Paidotribo (2006).
  13. Hirisch C. “On lumbar facetectomies”. Acta Orthopedica 17 (1948): 240-251.
  14. World-Health-Organization. “Definiction, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications”. World health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2019).
  15. Camacho PM. “Body composition reference values”. Madrid: UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID (2016).
  16. “Biomechanical Principles Related to the Musculoskeletal System”. A Basic Science Primer in Orthopaedics. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins (1991).
  17. Byers PDWC. “Arquitecture and Structure of Bone. Diseases of Bones and Joints”. Londres: Chamman and Hall medical (1994).
  18. Orozco-Delclós L and Soler-Rich R. “OSTEOARTHRITIS AND INJURIES OF THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE”. MacGraw-Hill Inter-American (2005).
  20. Alvis-Gómez K and Osorio Quigua C. “Kinetic characterization of the Flavum ligament”. Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiología2 (2011).
  21. Wavreille G. “Normal tendon: anatomy and physiology”. Lille Cedex, France.
  22. Renström P and Hach T. “Tendon Injuries. Insertional Tendinopathy in Sports”. Springer (2004).
  23. Universidad Miguer Cervantes. (U. M. Elche, Editor, and S. Planelles, Producer) From Biomechanics of Human Movement (2018).
  24. Maganaris CN and Narici MV. Tendon Injuries. Basic science and clinical medicine. “Mechanical properties of Tendons”. London (2005).
  25. Repetto AD. “Biomechanics and ergonomics of movement”. Biomechanical bases for the analysis of human movement”. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Bs. As. Argentina (2005).
  26. Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe A and Romero Rodríguez D. “Role of the sensorimotor system in joint stability during sports activities”. Notes Medicine Sport (2013): 69-76.
  27. Alonso-Beltran J. “Morphometry of the human lumbar vertebrae”. 77. Valencia, Valencia, Spain: University of Valencia (2001).
  28. Bogduk N. “Clinical Anatomy of Lumbar Spine and Sacrum”. London.: Churchil Livingstone (1997).
  29. Testut L and Latarjet A. “Treatise on Human Anatomy (Vol. I)”. Barcelona: Saved (1983).
  30. Kapandji I. “Cuadernos de fisiologia articular. (Vol. III)”. Barcelona: Masson (1973).
  31. Weishaupt D., et al. “Positional MR imaging of the lumbar Spine: dose it demonstrate nerve root compromise not visible at conventional MR imaging?” Radiology (2000).
  32. Muñoz-Gutiérrez J. “Atlas of RADIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS in Orthopedics and Traumatology”. Mexico: McGRAW-HILL INTERAMERICANA (2001).
  33. López-Miñerro P. “Body posture and spinal loads”. Bat: University of Murcia (2009).
  34. Kendall F and Kendall E. “Muscles: Tests and functions”. Barcelona: JIMS (1985).
  35. Aguado XR and Fernández A. “Postural education in primary. Proposal of a methodology and example of a session”. Physical education and sport (2000).
  36. Andújar P and Santoja F. “Postural hygiene in school. (D. p. Albacete, Ed.) Albacete, Albacete: Provincial Council of Albacete (1996).
  37. Dores T and Kang J. “The biomechanics and biochemistry of disc degeneration”. Current Opinion in Orthopedics2 (1999): 117-121.
  38. McNally DS., et al. “A new technique to measure the internal mechanical behavior of intervertebral disc in vivo”. Transactions Orthopèdic Research Society 19 (1994): 735.
  39. Wike HJ., et al. “New in vivo measurements of pressures in the intravertebral disc in daily life”. Spine2 (1999): 755-762.
  40. Hedman TP and Fernie GR. “Mechanical response of the lumbar spine to seates postural load”. Spine (1997): 734-743.
  41. Muller G., et al. “Intramuscular presuure in the erector spine and intra-abdominal pressure related to posture and load”. Pine23 (1998): 2580-2590.
  42. Lord MJ., et al. “Lumbar lordosis effects of setting and setting”. Spine21 (1977): 2571-2574.
  43. Molinet-Dronda F., et al. “Basic analysis of movement”. Rowing technique. Navarra: Navarra Public University (2019).
  44. Rubalcava J., et al. “Acetabular anteversion angle of the hip in the Mexican adult population measured by computed tomography”. Acta Ortopédica Mexicana3 (2012): 160.
  45. Domínguez-Gasca LG., et al. “Comparison of the Fergunson angle in standing and decubitus”. Acta Médica Grupo Ángeles2 (2015): 84-85.
  46. Silva-MH. “Angle of the sagittal PLANP of the lumbosacral column in a sample of adolescents from the city of Temuco, Chile”. Revista Chilena de Anatomia3 (2001).
  47. Scott-M-LePhart and Freddie HF. “Propioception and neuromuscular control in joint stability”. Champaigne lL: Human Kinetics (2000).
  48. Gimenez-Salillas L., et al. “Biomechanical indicators in vertebral pain”. Biomechanics 6 (1996): 25-29.
  49. Tejada B. “Sagittal balance in the spine”. Orthotypes3 (2015): 117-118.
  50. Bassani T., et al. “Dependence of lumbar loads on spinopelvic sagittal alignment: An evaluatión based on musculoskeletal modelling”. PLOS One (2019).
  51. Llaneza-Alvarez J. “Ergonomics and Applied Psychosociology”. Lex Nova (2009).
  52. Yuing F., et al. “Comparison between Two Methods Used to measure the lumbar curve”. International Journal of Morphology 2 (2010): 509-510.
  53. Adams MA HW. “Gradual disc prolapse”. Spine 10 (1985): 525-531.
  54. Chernukha KV and Daffner RH. “Lumbar lordosis measurement”. Spine 1 (1988): 74-79.
  55. Pascuale MC. “Kyphosis and lordosis”. Kinesiology and Rehabilitation, Pid (2001): 56.
  56. Kazemi AR. “Influence of closed kinetic system on global myofascial improvement and low back pain. The VIII congress of the world federation of athletic training and therapy”. Madrid: Athletic Training and Therapy (2017): 75.
  57. Recio-García JAAA. “Intelligent control system for back pain therapy”. Case-based reasoning research and development. 25th international conference, ICCBR 2017. Norway (2017): 287-301.
  58. Recio-Garcia JA., et al. “Intelligent control system for back pain therapy”. In International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. Springer, Cham (2017): 287-301.
  59. Juan A Recio-García BDA. “A data-driven predictive system using Case-Based Reasoning for the configuration of device-assisted back pain therapy”. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 420 (2019).
  60. Enkina RM. “Neuromechanics of Humen Movment (Vol. III)”. USA, USA: Human Kinetics (2002).
  61. Uribe (2016).


Citation: Alireza Kazemi B. “How to Deal with Agents: Medical and Ethical Aspects”.Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 6.1 (2023): 06-16.


Copyright: © 2023 Alireza Kazemi B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US