Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Editorial Volume 5 Issue 7

Understanding the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S)

Jasrah Javed*

Master of Physiotherapy, Musculoskeletal Disorders and Sports, The Oxford College of Physiotherapy, Bangalore, India

*Corresponding Author: Jasrah Javed, Master of Physiotherapy, Musculoskeletal Disorders and Sports, The Oxford College of Physiotherapy, Bangalore, India.

Received: May 16, 2022; Published: June 01, 2022


The term RED-S first described by the International Olympic committee in the year 2014 [1] is the ‘Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports’ occurring as the consequences of altered physiological functioning causing abnormal metabolic rates, bone health changes, altered immunity and protein synthesis along with a compromised cardiovascular health and psychological health issues [2]. The condition of RED-S is believed to occur as a result of insufficient caloric intake and/or excessive energy expenditure.


  1. Elliott-Sale KJ., et al. “Endocrine effects of relative energy deficiency in sport”. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism4 (2018): 335-349.
  2. Statuta SM., et al. “Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)”. British Journal of Sports Medicine 21 (2017): 1570-1571.
  3. Hobart, JA; Smucker. "The female athlete triad". American Family Physician11 (2000): 3357-3367.
  4. "What is the Triad?". Female Athlete Triad Coalition (2012).
  5. Nattiv A., et al. “American College of sports medicine, American college of sports medicine position stand: female athlete triad”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 10 (2007): 1867-1882.
  6. De Souza MJ., et al. (2014).
  7. Mountjoy M., et al. “The IOC consensus statement: beyond the female athlete triad-relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)”. British Journal of Sports Medicine7 (2014): 491-497.
  8. Nazem TG and Ackerman KE. “The female athlete triad”. Sports Health4 (2012): 302-311.
  9. Dipla K., et al. “Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S): Elucidation of endocrine changes affecting the health of males and females”. Hormones1 (2020): 35-47.
  10. Coelho AR., et al. “The Female Athlete Triad/Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S)”. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia, 43 (2021): 395-402.
  11. Hotta M., et al. “The relationship between bone turnover and body weight, serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, and serum IGF-binding protein levels in patients with anorexia nervosa”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism1 (2022): 200-206.
  12. Mountjoy M., et al. “RED-S CAT™”. British Journal of Sports Medicine 49 (2015): 421-423.


Citation: Jasrah Javed. “Understanding the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S)".Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 5.7 (2022): 01-04.


Copyright: © 2022 Jasrah Javed. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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