Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 4

Hamstring Weakness: A Sequel of Cerebrovascular Accident

Binuyo Overcomer* and Adejimi Olaolu

Department of Physiotherapy, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Binuyo Overcomer, Department of Physiotherapy, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Received: February 24, 2022; Published: March 14, 2022

Abstract

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), commonly known as stroke is a condition that results from infarction of neurons in the brain due to vascular compromise. It is a highly prevalent disease, a leading cause of death and long-term disability.

The most frequent sign after stroke is muscle weakness which leads to loss of functions in the upper or lower limb. The most frequently affected muscle groups are the extensors of the upper limb and flexors of the lower limb. The muscle group of interest is the hamstring muscle group. The mechanism of muscle weakness in stroke can be neural or structural. The hamstring muscles are the muscles responsible for knee flexion. Knee flexion in humans is essential to the performance of major lower-limb functions which include walking, transfers, standing, stair climbing and so on.

Physiotherapy management is indicated as a major part in the rehabilitation of post-stroke paresis (muscle weakness). There are several physiotherapy modalities employed in the management of paresis including passive exercises, mirror therapy, electrical stimulation, mental practice, functional electrical stimulation, task specific training among others.

In Conclusion, at different levels of hamstring muscle power (Oxford muscle grading) among stroke survivors, there are effective physiotherapy management techniques to address that. The goal is to improve the muscle strength with associated increase in functional level and ultimately increase in societal participation for community integration.

Keywords: Cerebrovascular Accident; Stroke; Physiotherapy

References

  1. Lindsay MP., et al. “World stroke organization (WSO): global stroke fact sheet” (2019).
  2. Rutten-Jacobs LC., et al. “Long-term mortality after stroke among adults aged 18 to 50 years”. Jama 11 (2013): 1136-1144.
  3. Clarke PJ., et al. “Handicap in stroke survivors”. Disability and Rehabilitation3 (1999): 116-123.
  4. Johnson W., et al. “Stroke: a global response is needed”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 94.9 (2016): 634.
  5. Strandgaard S and Paulson OB. “Pathophysiology of stroke”. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 15 (1990): S38-42.
  6. Collins RC., et al. “Selective vulnerability of the brain: new insights into the pathophysiology of stroke”. Annals of Internal Medicine12 (1989): 992-1000.
  7. Chen XY., et al. “Clinical features of thalamic stroke”. Current Treatment Options in Neurology2 (2017): 5.
  8. Hammond EC and Garfinkel L. “Coronary heart disease, stroke, and aortic aneurysm: factors in the etiology”. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal2 (1969): 167-182.
  9. Rondina JM., et al. “Brain regions important for recovery after severe post-stroke upper limb paresis”. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry9 (2017): 737-743.
  10. Wist S., et al. “Muscle strengthening for hemiparesis after stroke: A meta-analysis”. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2 (2016): 114-124.
  11. Adams RW., et al. “The distribution of muscle weakness in upper motoneuron lesions affecting the lower limb”. Brain 113 (1990): 1459-1476.
  12. Blennerhassett JM., et al. “Clinical measures of handgrip limitation relate to impaired pinch grip force control after stroke”. Journal of Hand Therapy3 (2008): 245-253.
  13. Mercer VS., et al. “Measurement of paretic–lower-extremity loading and weight transfer after stroke”. Physical Therapy7 (2009): 653-664.
  14. Hesse S., et al. “Robot-assisted practice of gait and stair climbing in nonambulatory stroke patients”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 4 (2012): 613-622.
  15. Andrews AW and Bohannon RW. “Distribution of muscle strength impairments following stroke”. Clinical Rehabilitation1 (2000): 79-87.
  16. Smith GV., et al. “’Task-oriented” exercise improves hamstring strength and spastic reflexes in chronic stroke patients”. Stroke10 (1999): 2112-2118.
  17. Ada L., et al. “Stroke patients have selective muscle weakness in shortened range”. Brain3 (2003): 724-731.
  18. Hafer-Macko CE., et al. “Skeletal muscle changes after hemiparetic stroke and potential beneficial effects of exercise intervention strategies”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development2 (2008): 261.
  19. Standing RJ and Maulder PS. “The biomechanics of standing start and initial acceleration: Reliability of the key determining kinematics”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine1 (2016): 154.
  20. Nashner LM. “Practical biomechanics and physiology of balance”. Balance Function Assessment and Management (2014): 431.
  21. Takacs J and Hunt MA. “The effect of contralateral pelvic drop and trunk lean on frontal plane knee biomechanics during single limb standing”. Journal of Biomechanics 16 (2012): 2791-2796.
  22. Straudi S., et al. “Sagittal plane kinematic analysis of the six-minute walk test: a classification of hemiplegic gait”. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 3 (2009): 341-347.
  23. Perry J and Burnfield JM. “Gait analysis: normal and pathological function”. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 35 (1993): 1122.
  24. Hosseini ZS., et al. “The effect of early passive range of motion exercise on motor function of people with stroke: a randomized controlled trial”. Journal of Caring Sciences1 (2019): 39.
  25. Thieme H., et al. “Mirror therapy for improving motor function after stroke”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7 (2018).
  26. Chae J., et al. “Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for motor restoration in hemiplegia”. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation5 (2008): 412-426.
  27. Braun SM., et al. “The effects of mental practice in stroke rehabilitation: a systematic review”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation6 (2006): 842-852.
  28. DANTES E., et al. “The rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke”. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health1 (2020).
  29. Tenniglo M., et al. “Influence of functional electrical stimulation of the hamstrings on knee kinematics in stroke survivors walking with stiff knee gait”. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine8 (2018): 719-724.
  30. Morris SL., et al. “Outcomes of progressive resistance strength training following stroke: a systematic review”. Clinical Rehabilitation1 (2004): 27-39.
  31. Sullivan KJ., et al. “Effects of task-specific locomotor and strength training in adults who were ambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomized clinical trial”. Physical Therapy12 (2007): 1580-1602.
  32. Combs SA., et al. “Effects of an intensive, task-specific rehabilitation program for individuals with chronic stroke: a case series”. Disability and Rehabilitation8 (2010): 669-678.
  33. Winstein CJ., et al. “Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association”. Stroke6 (2016): e98-169.
  34. Odetunde MO., et al. “Development and Feasibility Testing of Video Home Based Telerehabilitation for Stroke Survivors in Resource Limited Settings”. International Journal of Telerehabilitation2 (2020): 125-136.

Citation

Citation: Binuyo Overcomer and Adejimi Olaolu. “Hamstring Weakness: A Sequel of Cerebrovascular Accident".Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 5.4 (2022): 77-81.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Binuyo Overcomer and Adejimi Olaolu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US