Preliminary Scoring Template of a Modified Landing Error Scoring System
Ivana Hanzlíková1*, Jim Richards2 and Kim Hébert-Losier1
1Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, Adams Centre for High Performance, University of Waikato, New Zealand
2Allied Health Research Unit, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom
*Corresponding Author: Ivana Hanzlíková, Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, Adams Centre for High Performance, University of Waikato, New Zealand. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
December 29, 2021; Published: January 18, 2022
Background: The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) identifies participants displaying potentially high-risk movement patterns during a double-leg jump-landing (DLJL) task. However, the DLJL has been criticized for not reflecting injury-prone situations in sport. The biomechanics and perceived difficulty of a rotated single-leg jump-landing (SLJLrot) task have shown stronger associations with sport-specific cutting maneuvers than DLJL. Therefore, the SLJLrot may be a better suited task than the DLJL to assess landing “errors”.
Objectives: Present a preliminary scoring template of a modified LESS applied to a SLJLrot task.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: Whole-body motion was recorded for 42 young active participants (25 males and 17 females) using a three-dimensional infrared camera system during DLJL and SLJLrot tasks. Ankle, knee, hip, and trunk angles corresponding to the original LESS items were extracted for dominant and non-dominant legs from both tasks. Based on the differences in kinematic values between tasks, original LESS thresholds, and current scientific evidence, the original LESS items from the DLJL were modified to suit the SLJLrot task.
Results: A preliminary scoring template of a modified LESS applied to a SLJLrot task was developed, including operational definitions of errors and relevant thresholds. The preliminary template consists of 13 items. The minimum and maximum scores are 0 and 12 errors, respectively, with higher scores indicating poorer landing biomechanics.
Conclusions: The modified LESS may be an appropriate clinical screening tool for assessing sport-related non-contact lower extremity injury risk in athletes. The proposed template and thresholds require further scientific validation.
Keywords: Injury Risk; Screening Tool; Sport Injuries; Anterior Cruciate Ligament
- Padua DA., et al. “The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics: the JUMP-ACL study”. American Journal of Sports Medicine10 (2009): 1996-2002.
- Krosshaug T., et al. “The vertical drop jump is a poor screening test for ACL injuries in female elite soccer and handball players: a prospective cohort study of 710 athletes”. American Journal of Sports Medicine4 (2016): 874-883.
- Mørtvedt AI., et al. “I spy with my little eye… a knee about to go ‘pop’? Can coaches and sports medicine professionals predict who is at greater risk of ACL rupture?” British Journal of Sports Medicine3 (2020): 154-158.
- Hanzlíková I., et al. “Which jump-landing task best represents lower extremity and trunk kinematics of unanticipated cutting maneuver?” Gait Posture 85 (2021): 171-177.
- Padua DA., et al. “The Landing Error Scoring System as a screening tool for an anterior cruciate ligament injury-prevention program in elite-youth soccer athletes”. Journal of Athletic Training 6 (2015): 589-595.
- Cappozzo A., et al. “Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination”. Clinical Biomechanics 4 (1995): 171-178.
- Grood ES and Suntay WJ. “A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee”. The Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 2 (1983): 136-144.
- Krosshaug T., et al. “Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball: video analysis of 39 cases”. American Journal of Sports Medicine3 (2007): 359-367.
- Koga H., et al. “Mechanisms for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: knee joint kinematics in 10 injury situations from female team handball and basketball”. American Journal of Sports Medicine 38 (11 (2010): 2218-2225.
- Montgomery C., et al. “Mechanisms of ACL injury in professional rugby union: a systematic video analysis of 36 cases”. British Journal of Sports Medicine15 (2016): 994-1001.
- Olsen O-E., et al. “Injury mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in team handball: a systematic video analysis”. American Journal of Sports Medicine4 (2004): 1002-1012.
- Boden BP., et al. “Video analysis of anterior cruciate ligament injury: abnormalities in hip and ankle kinematics”. American Journal of Sports Medicine2 (2009): 252-259.
- Sheehan FT., et al. “Dynamic sagittal plane trunk control during anterior cruciate ligament injury”. American Journal of Sports Medicine5 (2012): 1068-1074.
- Hewett TE., et al. “Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism”. British Journal of Sports Medicine6 (2009): 417-422.
- Dar G., et al. “Concurrent criterion validity of a novel portable motion analysis system for assessing the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) test”. Sports Biomechanics 4 (2019): 426-436.
- Cochrum RG., et al. “Visual classification of running economy by distance running coaches”. European Journal of Sport Science (2020): 1-8.
- Zazulak BT., et al. “Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk: prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study”. American Journal of Sports Medicine7 (2007): 1123-1130.
- Hashemi J., et al. “Hip extension, knee flexion paradox: a new mechanism for non-contact ACL injury”. Journal of Biomechanics 4 (2011): 577-585.
- Puig-Diví A., et al. “Validity and reliability of the Kinovea program in obtaining angles and distances using coordinates in 4 perspectives”. PLoS One6 (2019): e0216448.
- Hanzlíková I and Hébert-Losier K. “Is the Landing Error Scoring System reliable and valid? A systematic review”. Sports Health2 (2020): 181-188.