Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 6

Thumb Opposition Strength in Healthy Adults- A Baseline Study

Charles Andrew R Chu-Santos1 and Precious Grace B Handog2*

1Department of Orthopaedics, Chong Hua Hospital Cebu, Philippines
2Hand and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Orthopaedics, Chong Hua Hospital Cebu, Philippines

*Corresponding Author: Precious Grace B Handog, Hand and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Orthopaedics, Chong Hua Hospital Cebu, Philippines.

Received: May 12, 2021; Published: May 28, 2021


Background: The thumb is considered the central component of hand function and involves for 40% to 50% of the hand’s usefulness. Thumb opposition is the hallmark of human hand function and is the most important motion of the hand. Currently there is no quantitative baseline data for thumb opposition strength using a standardized measure and tool. Thus, this study aims to provide the baseline reference using the Jamar B & L Pinch Gauge Dynamometer.

Methods: Purposive sampling was done for recruitment. The maximal strength among three trials for each stage of Kapandji that was designated (Stage 5, 6, 9) was recorded and used in the data.

Results: With 388 individuals included in the study, it was noted that the mean thumb opposition strength in stage 5 right is 4.14 to 4.42 kg, Left 3.79 to 4.04 kg. Stage 6 right 2.80 to 3.02 kg, Left 2.48 to 2.67kg. Stage 9 right 3.23 to 3.40kg, left 3.17 to 3.34 kg. There was significant difference between the 3 designated stages of Kapandji (Stage 5, 6, 9). Generally, males have higher strength than females and that hand dominance has no significant correlation. Age has a positive correlation with thumb opposition strength. BMI and Dash score showed no significant correlation except on Stage 5 left and Stage 6 right.

Conclusion: Baseline reference for thumb opposition strength in the local setting in the Philippines is of significance considering that this function of the thumb is vital and it is involved in several conditions. This data will be of great importance as a quantitative measure for therapeutic assessment and that it can be used as a screening measure for susceptible individuals.

Keywords: Thumb Opposition Strength; Thenar Muscles; Dynamometer; Pinch Strength; Baseline Study


  1. Barakat MJ., et al. “The range of movement of the thumb”. Hand New York Journal2 (2013): 179-182.
  2. Bunnell S. “Opposition of the thumb”. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery2 (1938): 269-284.
  3. Söderberg L. “Repair of failing opposition of the thumb”. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 22 (1952): 237-248.
  4. Cooney WP., et al. “Opposition of the thumb: an anatomic and biomechanical study of tendon transfers”. Journal of Hand Surgery American6 (1984): 777-786.
  5. Garg B., et al. “Thumb opposition recovery following surgery for severe carpal tunnel syndrome: A clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological pilot study”. Journal of Hand Surgery American2 (2019): e1-e5.
  6. Swigart CR. “Arthritis of the base of the thumb”. Current Review in Musculoskeletal Medicine2 (2008): 142-146.
  7. Durban CM., et al. “Thumb function and electromyography result after modified Camitz tendon transfer”. The Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific3 (2017): 275-280.
  8. Brandsma JW., et al. “Manual muscle strength testing: intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities for the intrinsic muscles of the hand”. The Journal of Hand Therapy3 (1995): 185-190.
  9. Schreuders TA., et al. “Strength measurements of the intrinsic hand muscles: a review of the development and evaluation of the Rotterdam intrinsic hand myometer”. The Journal of Hand Therapy4 (2006): 393-401.
  10. Kapandji AI. “Clinical evaluation of the thumb's opposition”. Journal of Hand Therapy 5 (1992): 102-116.
  11. Handog PB and Pua JC. “Grip and pinch strength in healthy adult Filipinos- A baseline study”. Philippine Journal of Orthopaedics1 (2014): 47-51.


Citation: Charles Andrew R Chu -Santos and Precious Grace B Handog. “Thumb Opposition Strength in Healthy Adults- A Baseline Study".Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 4.6 (2021): 90-99.


Copyright: © 2021 Charles Andrew R Chu -Santos and Precious Grace B Handog. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US