Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Emerging Trend in the Bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in South-Eastern Nigeriat

Evaristus E Afiadigwe1*, Ugochukwu S Umeh1, Iloduba N Aghanya2, Josephat C Akabuike3 and Nnaemeka G Umedum4

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
4Department of ENT, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Evaristus E Afiadigwe, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Received: February 25, 2024; Published: April 16, 2024

Abstract

Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a prevalent otolaryngological disease of public health importance. Antibiotics use in its management should be evidence guided. We aimed to profile the bacterial pathogens causing this disease and their susceptibility patterns in our locality to guide empirical antibiotics usage.

Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at a specialist Otorhinolaryngology clinic located in Anambra state, south Eastern Nigeria over 5 years. Ear swab specimens obtained from patients diagnosed clinically with Chronic suppurative otitis media were sent to the laboratory for microscopy, culture and sensitivity tests

Results: Out of 3,520 patients that presented to the clinic during the period under review, 414 were managed for CSOM, giving a prevalence of 11.8. The commonest age category affected in this study was young adults (18-30 years) which constituted 22.5%. Infants were the least affected, making up only 1.45%. Organisms cultured included coliform (30.2%), Pseudomonas species (19.3%), Staphylococcus aureus 17.6%, Proteus species (2.4%), Klebsiella species (1.4%), Streptococcus species (1%), while 28% yielded no growth. Gentamycin showed the highest sensitivities to the bacterial isolates (23.1%), while the least sensitive antibiotic was cefuroxime (0.29%). Others were Chloramphenicol (16.59%), Amoxiclav (13.4%), Ofloxacin (11.5%), Ciprofloxacin (9.89%), Cefixime (7.7%), Erythromycin (6.55%), Levofloxacin (6.4%), Streptomycin (3.93%) and Amoxicillin (0.5%).

Conclusion: We recorded a different pattern of bacterial culture and sensitivity of middle ear discharge from patients with CSOM in comparisom to other literatures. Widespread antibiotic abuse could be responsible for this trend. Specific and appropriate antibiotics use should always be emphasized to prevent resistance and treatment failures.

Keywords: Bacteriology; Culture; Sensitivity; Chronic; Otitis Media

References

  1. Khan JA., et al. “Bacteriology of Chronic Supporative Otitis Media (CSOM) at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Mymensingh”. Mymensingh Medical Journal3 (2020): 545-552.
  2. Brook I. “The role of anaerobic bacteria in chronic suppurative otitis media in children: implications for medical therapy”. Anaerobe6 (2008): 297-300.
  3. Olajide TG., et al. “Bacteriological agents of chronic discharging ears and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in Ido - Ekiti, Nigeria”. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal1 (2012): 30-35.
  4. Hiremath B., et al. “Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A 1-Year Cross-Sectional Study”. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery 71 (2019): 1221-1226.
  5. Uddén F., et al. “Aerobic bacteria associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Angola”. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 1 (2018): 42.
  6. Iseh K and Abubakar T. “Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A Clinical Profile in Sokoto, Nigeria”. Sahel Medical Journal 6 (2004).
  7. Xu J., et al. “Bacteriological Profile of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media and Antibiotic Susceptibility in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Shanghai, China”. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal9 (2021): NP391-NP396.
  8. Chirwa M, et al. “Microbiology of chronic suppurative otitis media at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi: A cross-sectional descriptive study”. Malawi Medical Journal4 (2015): 120-124.
  9. Mittal R., et al. “Current concepts in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media”. Journal of Medical Microbiology 10 (2015): 1103-1116.
  10. Wan Draman WNA., et al. “Evaluation of the current bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in chronic suppurative otitis media”. Laryngoscope Investigation Otolaryngology6 (2021): 1300-1306.
  11. Muluye D., et al. “Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of ear discharge from patients with ear infection at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia”. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorder1 (2013): 10.
  12. Tesfa T., et al. “Bacterial otitis media in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. BMC Infectious Disorder1 (2020): 225.
  13. Kombade SP., et al. “Clinico-bacteriological and antibiotic drug resistance profile of chronic suppurative otitis media at a tertiary care hospital in Western Rajasthan”. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 7 (2021): 2572-2579.
  14. Brook I and Yocum P. “Quantitative bacterial cultures and beta-lactamase activity in chronic suppurative otitis media”. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 4 (1989): 293-297.
  15. Aduda DSO., et al. “Bacteriology of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children in Garissa district, Kenya: a point prevalence study”. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 7 (2013): 1107-1111.
  16. Getaneh A., et al. “Bacterial Etiologies of Ear Infection and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Six-Year Retrospective Study”. Infection and Drug Resistance 14 (2021): 4313-4322.
  17. Aliyu I., et al. “Bacteriology of otitis media and its host-environmental-infection factors”. 3 (2017): 20-27.
  18. Weinstein MP and Lewis JS. “The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Subcommittee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Background, Organization, Functions, and Processes”. 58 (2020).
  19. Ologe FE and Nwawolo CC. “Prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) among school children in a rural community in Nigeria”. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal2 (2002): 63-66.
  20. Kamal N., et al. “Prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media among the children living in two selected slums of Dhaka City”. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin3 (200): 95-104.
  21. Ahmad S. “Antibiotics in chronic suppurative otitis media : A bacteriologic study”. (2013): 191-194.
  22. Acuin J. “Chronic suppurative otitis media”. Clinical Evidence (Online) 12 (2004): 710-729.
  23. Adebola SO., et al. “Profile of anaerobic bacteriology of middle ear aspirates in a developing country: does immunocompromise play a role?” Anaerobe 26 (2014): 31-35.
  24. Oa A., et al. “Pattern of bacterial isolates in the middle ear discharge of patients with chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary hospital in North central Nigeria”. 12.3 (2012).
  25. Oni AA., et al. “Bacterial agents of discharging ears and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in children in Ibadan, Nigeria”. West African Journal of Medicine 2 (2001): 131-135.
  26. Ibekwe AO., et al. “Anaerobes and fungi in chronic suppurative otitis media”. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 8 (1997): 649-652.

Citation

Citation: Evaristus E Afiadigwe., et al. “Emerging Trend in the Bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in South-Eastern Nigeria". Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 6.5 (2024): 15-20.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Evaristus E Afiadigwe., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In







News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US