Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 5

Game Changers for Youngsters Who have a Phobia of Needles, Nasal and Oral Vaccines are a Benefit to Individuals Who Are Scared of Needles. A Literature Review

Kanwar Shabaz Singh Sandhu1, Vikram Singh Katodia2, Naginder Pal Singh3, Parteek4, Harnoor Singh Sandhu5*, Avineet Kaur6, Simmerpreet J Mann7 and Jasdeep Singh Mann8

1PG Student, Department of Pediatrics, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Sasaram Jamuhar (Bihar), India
2MD (Pediatrics), Pediatrician and Neonatologist, PCMS-1, MCH Civil Hospital, Mansa (Punjab), India
3MBBS, Intern, Government Multi Specialty Hospital, Sec16, Chandigarh, India
4MBBS, Junior Resident, Department of Surgery, Gian Sagar Medical Hospital, Banur, Rajpura (Punjab), India
5MBBS, Emergency Medical Officer, Department of Emergency, Gian Sagar Medical Hospital, Banur, Rajpura (Punjab), India
6MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Swami Devi Dyal dental College and Hospital, Golpura, Barwala (Haryana), India
7BDS, Private consultant, Mann Dental and Medical Care Center (Punjab), India
8MBBS, MHA, Private consultant, Mann Dental and Medical Care Center (Punjab), India

*Corresponding Author: Harnoor Singh Sandhu, MBBS, Emergency Medical Officer, Department of Emergency, Gian Sagar Medical Hospital, Banur, Rajpura (Punjab), India.

Received: April 13, 2022; Published:

Abstract

It’s a person who gave first time this technology Oramed's protein oral delivery (POD) approach is used to generate the oral vaccination. The patient's ability to self-administer the vaccine will improve. The ease of usage and familiarity with oral administration will increase patient compliance as the method is not entirely new. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is now circulating globally. By June 23rd, 2020, the infection had spread to 9.0 million people in 216 countries. COVID-19 has no currently authorised therapy or preventive. SARS,CoV2 requires mucosal immunity in the upper respiratory tract. A lack of local secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies increases transmission from vaccinated people. Oral or intranasal mucosal vaccines are available. Measles, polio, smallpox, diphtheria, and other diseases require new vaccines. Molecular genetics has become increasingly important in immunology, vaccine research, microbiology and other domains. Vaccines introduce weakened or inactivated viruses into our bodies, activating APCs. APCs (antigen presenting cells) alert the immune system to the infection. Vaccine effectiveness and efficacy are determined by the vaccine's ingredients and how the human immune system digests them. Cases of COVID-19 are growing in this ongoing pandemic. Compared to adults, children's mortality is less than 1%. Adults with respiratory or heart disorders fare worst says WHO. An excellent animal model is immunocompetent and mimics human illness symptoms. Transgenic mice with human ACE2 receptors became sick after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ferrets are frequently used to study respiratory illnesses.

Keywords: Oral Vaccine; Nasal Vaccine; Children

References

  1. Zheng YJ. “Expert consensus on COVID-19 vaccination in children”. World Journal of Pediatrics5 (2021): 449-457.
  2. Frederiksen LSF., et al. “The Long Road Toward COVID-19 Herd Immunity: Vaccine Platform Technologies and Mass Immunization Strategies”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020).
  3. Kar S., et al. “Oral and intranasal vaccines against SARS‐CoV‐2: Current progress, prospects, advantages, and challenges”. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease4 (2022).
  4. Yadav R., et al. “Recent challenges in Covid 19 vaccines and its future advancements”. IP International Journal of Comprehensive and Advanced Pharmacology 1 (2022): 44-50.
  5. Marlais M., et al. “The severity of COVID-19 in children on immunosuppressive medication”. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health 7 (2020).
  6. Kashte S., et al. “COVID-19 vaccines: rapid development, implications, challenges and future prospects”. Human Cell3 (2021): 711-733.
  7. Zimmermann P., et al. “Should children be vaccinated against COVID-19?” Archives of Disease in Childhood3 (2021).
  8. Suran M. “Why Parents Still Hesitate to Vaccinate Their Children Against COVID-19”. JAMA 1 (2022): 23.
  9. Kostoff RN., et al. “Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19?” Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 1665-1684.
  10. Karczmarzyk K and Kęsik-Brodacka M. “Attacking the Intruder at the Gate: Prospects of Mucosal Anti SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines”. Pathogens2 (2022): 117.
  11. Ratcliffe NA., et al. “Nasal therapy—The missing link in optimising strategies to improve prevention and treatment of COVID-19”. PLOS Pathogens11 (2021).
  12. Dhama K., et al. “COVID-19 intranasal vaccines: current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges”. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (2022): 1-11.
  13. Robinson J., et al. “COVID-19: Intranasal and Oral Routes of Vaccination”. Journal of Lumbini Medical College1 (2021): 3.

Citation

Citation: Harnoor Singh Sandhu., et al. “Game Changers for Youngsters Who have a Phobia of Needles, Nasal and Oral Vaccines are a Benefit to Individuals Who Are Scared of Needles. A Literature Review". Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 4.5 (2022): 00-00.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Harnoor Singh Sandhu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In







News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US