Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 5

An In-depth Look at COVID-19 for Children and Newborns in a Few Minutes. An Analysis of the Literature

Harnoor Singh Sandhu1, Kanwar Shabaz Singh Sandhu2*, Naginder Pal Singh3, Avineet Kaur4, Parteek5, Simmerpreet J Mann6, Jasdeep Singh Mann7 and Mehraab Dhillon8

1MBBS, Emergency Medical Officer, Department of Emergency, Gian Sagar Medical Hospital Banur, Rajpura (Punjab), India
2PG Student, Department of Paediatrics, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Sasaram Jamuhar (Bihar), India
3MBBS, Intern, Government Multi Speciality Hospital, India
4Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Swami Devi Dyal Dental College and Hospital, Golpura, Barwala (Haryana), India
5MBBS, Junior Resident, Department of Surgery, Gian Sagar Medical Hospital, Banur, Rajpura (Punjab), India
6Private Consultant, Mann Dental and Medical Care Center (Punjab), India
7MBBS, MHA, Private Consultant, Mann Dental and Medical Care Center (Punjab), India
8Final Year BDS Student, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot (Punjab), India

*Corresponding Author: Kanwar Shabaz Singh Sandhu, PG Student, Department of Paediatrics, Narayan Medical College and Hospital, Sasaram Jamuhar (Bihar), India.

Received: April 07, 2022; Published: April 28, 2022


As of March 11, 2020, the human coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic had begun. The most typical signs of a lower respiratory infection include fever, cough, and dyspnea. One or more organs may fail, leading to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting humans of all ages, including infants as little as one day old. Of the 72,314 cases that were documented in China, just 2% included a child who was under the age of 19. Among the United States, Covid-19 is more prevalent in the 12- to 17-year-old age range. Since 2003, more than 1,100,000 illnesses and 62,784 deaths have been attributed to COVID-19. In the initial published study, just 0.39 percent of children were diagnosed with the disease. As of 2021, 18 children between the ages of 10 and 19 have died as a result of the disease. S1 has the most common mutation, which increases the virus' affinity for the ACE2 receptor by replacing D614G (Asp 614Gly). SARS-CoV-2 infection in children results in far fewer neurological complications than in adults. A probable case of COVID-19 is indicated by the presence of clinical signs and symptoms in a suitable epidemiological environment. Virus detection laboratory tests might be used to confirm the diagnosis. The incubation period of 2-14 days is critical in determining the time of infection. Coughing, tiredness, and exhaustion were the most common post-acute symptoms. At the most recent review in March 2021, all 151 children were confirmed to be healthy and free of these symptoms. Changes in innate and adaptive immunity, more frequent recurrences and concomitant infections, and pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses are all possible safeguards for children. Over the course of the months of December 2019 and February 2020, nine infants in China were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Approximately 1-2 weeks following the onset of symptoms, most of the paediatric patients had fully recovered. Babies who were infected by a member of their families were more likely to get infected themselves.

Keywords: Children; Infants; Corona Virus; Pandemic; Biomarkers


  1. Tsankov BK., et al. “Severe COVID-19 Infection and Pediatric Comorbidities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 103 (2021): 246-245.
  2. Adeyinka A., et al. “COVID 19 infection: Pediatric perspectives”. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open1 (2021).
  3. Wang L., et al. “Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 in Children: A Review”. International Journal of General Medicine (2021): 8097-8108.
  4. Zimmermann P and Curtis N. “Why is COVID-19 less severe in children? A review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections”. Archives of Disease in Childhood5 (2020): 429-423.
  5. Ciuca IM. “COVID-19 in Children: An Ample Review”. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy (2020): 661-669.
  6. Li B., et al. “Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Frontiers in Pediatrics (2020): 8.
  7. Tagarro A., et al. “Low COVID-19 mortality in Spanish children”. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health6 (2021).
  8. Florian G., et al. “Covid-19 in children and adolescents in Europe: a multinational, multicentre cohort study”. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health 9 (2022): 653-661.
  9. Sankar J., et al. “COVID-19 in Children: Clinical Approach and Management”. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics6 (2020): 433-442.
  10. Calina D., et al. “Towards effective COVID‑19 vaccines: Updates, perspectives and challenges (Review)” (2020).
  11. Say D., et al. “Post-acute COVID-19 outcomes in children with mild and asymptomatic disease”. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health 6 (2021).
  12. Hong H., et al. “Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in newborns, infants and children”. Pediatrics and Neonatology2 (2020): 131-132.
  13. Samprathi M and Jayashree M. “Biomarkers in COVID-19: An Up-To-Date Review”. Frontiers in Pediatrics 8 (2021).


Citation: Kanwar Shabaz Singh Sandhu., et al. “An In-depth Look at COVID-19 for Children and Newborns in a Few Minutes. An Analysis of the Literature".Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 4.5 (2022): 57-63.


Copyright: © 2022 Kanwar Shabaz Singh Sandhu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US