Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 10

Nasal Cytology as a Biomarker of Inflammatory Respiratory Pathology Type 2: Results of a Cross-Sectional Analysis

Cristiano Lingua1*, Giuseppe Guida2, Iuliana Badiu3, Andrea Antonelli2 and Alberto Macchi4

1ENT - M.D. Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Department, ASO S. Croce and Carle Cuneo, Italy
2Immunologist and Allergist - M.D. SS Allergy and Respiratory Physiopathology, ASO S. Croce and Carle Cuneo, Italy
3Immunologist and Allergologist - M.D. SSdDU Immunology and Allergy, AO Mauriziano Order, Torino Italy
4ENT - M.D. ENT Department, Insubria University, ASST Sette Laghi, Varese, Italy

*Corresponding Author: Cristiano Lingua, ENT - M.D. Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Department, ASO S. Croce and Carle Cuneo, Italy.

Received: June 23, 2021; Published: September 17, 2021


  The epidemiological, clinical and phenotypic correlation between asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), in particular with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), type 2 inflammatory respiratory pathologies, spread and addressed the research for a biomarker able to identify different phenotypes in asthma and CRSwNP at first, but also monitoring the effect of therapy, giving a right prognostic value in treatment. The nasal cytology has been proposed in this study as the biomarker: 31 patients (diagnosed as “severe or difficult-to-control asthma) were subjected to nasal cytology and were divided, on the basis of rhinocyte observation on the optic microscope in 5 categories: NARES (non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia), NARMA (NAR with mastocytosis), NARESMA, NARNE (neutrophils) and some patients had a normal cytology.

  In the study have been valued: CRSwNP, ASA hypersensibility atopia, mycotype specific IgE and staphylococcus toxins, total IgE, current and maximum eosinophilic count, oral corticosteroid treatment (OCS), TC score according with Lund-Mackay; it was evaluate the treatment with biological drugs (immunoclonal antibody).

  Patients with type 2 inflammatory respiratory pathology with asthma (severe or difficult-to-control) and CRSwNP associated the nasal cytology can provide a differentiation of patients in phenotype with eosinophilia (NARES), from the one with mastocytosis (NARMA). Blood eosinophilia, atopy, ongoing use of systemic treatment (OCS, biological drugs) do not appear to effect on the cytology panel).

Keywords: NARES (Non Allergic Rhinitis with Eosinophilia); Nasal Cytology; NARMA (NAR with mastocytosis); Nasal Polyposis; Asthma; Biomarker


  1. William W Busse., et al. “Understanding the key issues in the treatment of uncontrolled persistent asthma with type 2 inflammation”. European Respiratory Journal (2021): 2003393.
  2. Aiko I Klingler., et al. “Mechanisms and biomarkers of inflammatory endotypes in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps”. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 4 (2021): 1306-1317.
  3. Matteo Gelardi., et al. “Clinical-Cytological-Grading and phenotyping in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: the relevance in clinical practice”. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 90 (2020): 1277.
  4. Heffler E., et al. “Nasal cytology: Methodology with application to clinical practice and research”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 9 (2018): 1092-1106.
  5. M Gelardi., et al. “NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 46 (2016): 785-792.


Citation: Cristiano Lingua., et al. “Nasal Cytology as a Biomarker of Inflammatory Respiratory Pathology Type 2: Results of a Cross-Sectional Analysis". Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 3.10 (2021): 40-42.


Copyright: © 2021 Cristiano Lingua., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US