Acta Scientific Otolaryngology (ASOL) (ISSN: 2582-5550)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 10

Characterizing the Effects of Site-Specific Metastases on Nasopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Survival

Christopher C Tseng1, Jeff Gao1, Gregory L Barinsky1, Jordon G Grube2, Christina H Fang3, Jean Anderson Eloy1,4,5,6,7 and Wayne D Hsueh1,4*

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
2Department of Otolaryngology, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, USA
3Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
4Center for Skull Base and Pituitary Surgery, Neurological Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
5Department of Neurological Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
6Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
7Department of Otolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center - RWJ Barnabas Health, Livingston, New Jersey, USA

*Corresponding Author: Wayne D Hsueh, Assistant Professor, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Received: August 25, 2021; Published: September 11, 2021

Abstract

Introduction: To investigate the impact of site-specific metastases on survival and identify predictors of metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried for all cases of nasopharyngeal SCC between 2010-2016 which had metastasized to distant sites (460 cases). This was then further classified as metastases to bone, liver, lung, brain, and multiple sites. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare patient demographics between sites. Kaplan-Meier analysis was applied to compare overall survival.

Results: A total of 145 (31.5%) distant metastases to bone, 55 (12.0%) to liver, 112 (24.3%) to lung, 15 (3.5%) to brain, and 113 (28.9%) to multiple sites were identified. One-year survival for the entire cohort was 50.4% with a median survival of 12.4 months. One-year survival was 58.3% for liver metastasis, 53.2% for bone, 48.9% for multiple sites, 44.2% for brain, and 42.7% for lung (log-rank p = 0.252). Patient age (p = 0.009) and treatment facility type (p = 0.019) were found to predict the site of distant metastasis. Being younger than 60 had lower odds of metastasis to liver compared to bone (OR 0.527, 95% CI [0.311 - 0.893], p = 0.017).

Conclusion: There was no significant difference found in survival between metastases to different sites. The patient’s treatment facility type and age were associated significantly with lower odds of nasopharyngeal SCC metastasis to certain distant sites.

Keywords: Nasopharynx; National Cancer Database; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Survival, Metastasis, Distant Site

References

  1. Chang ET and Adami HO. “The enigmatic epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention10 (2006): 1765-1777.
  2. Wei WI and Sham JS. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. The Lancet9476 (2005): 2041-2054.
  3. Moloy PJ., et al. “Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx”. Western Journal of Medicine1 (1985): 66.
  4. Farias TP., et al. “Prognostic Factors and Outcome for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma”. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery7 (2003): 794-799.
  5. Vokes EE., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. The Lancet9084 (1997): 1087-1091.
  6. Brennan B. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases1 (2006): 1-5.
  7. Razak ARA., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: The next challenges”. European Journal of Cancer11 (2010): 1967-1978.
  8. Patel TD., et al. “Utility of Surgery/Radiotherapy in Distant Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma:A Population-Based Approach”. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 5 (2016): 868-874.
  9. Alvi A and Johnson JT. “Development of distant metastasis after treatment of advanced‐stage head and neck cancer”. Head and Neck: Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck 6 (1997): 500-505.
  10. Altun M., et al. “Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer (UCNT): current diagnostic and therapeutic aspects”. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics 3 (1995): 859-877.
  11. Tian Y-M., et al. “Prognostic model and optimal treatment for patients with stage IVc nasopharyngeal carcinoma at diagnosis”. Scientific Reports 1 (2019): 19272.
  12. Tan HL., et al. “Metastatic gastric cancer: Does the site of metastasis make a difference?” Asia‐Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 1 (2019): 10-17.
  13. McClure SA., et al. “Maxillofacial metastases: a retrospective review of one institution's 15-year experience”. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1 (2013): 178-188.
  14. Qu W., et al. “Pattern and prognosis of distant metastases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A large-population retrospective analysis”. Cancer Medicine 17 (2020): 6147-6158.
  15. Bilimoria KY., et al. “The National Cancer Data Base: a powerful initiative to improve cancer care in the United States”. Annals of Surgical Oncology3 (2008): 683-690.
  16. Chaffer CL and Weinberg RA. “A Perspective on Cancer Cell Metastasis”. Science6024 (2011): 1559-1564.
  17. Hui EP., et al. “Lung metastasis alone in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a relatively favorable prognostic group: a study by the Hong Kong Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Study Group”. Cancer2 (2004): 300-306.
  18. Cao X., et al. “Risk subset of the survival for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with bone metastases: who will benefit from combined treatment?” Oral Oncology8 (2011): 747-752.
  19. Ong Y., et al. “Design of a prognostic index score for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. European Journal of Cancer11 (2003): 1535-1541.
  20. Zeng L., et al. “Retrospective analysis of 234 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with distant metastasis at initial diagnosis: therapeutic approaches and prognostic factors”. PLoS One9 (2014): e108070.
  21. Chen AY., et al. “Changes in treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancer, 1985–2001”. The Laryngoscope1 (2007): 16-21.
  22. Haque W., et al. “Radical cystectomy versus chemoradiation for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: impact of treatment facility and sociodemographics”. Anticancer Research10 (2017): 5603-5608.
  23. Wu L., et al. “Trends in the incidence, treatment and outcomes of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the USA: facility type is associated with margin status, use of lymphadenectomy and overall survival”. World Journal of Surgery7 (2019): 1777-1787.
  24. Hauser A., et al. “Impact of academic facility type and volume on post-surgical outcomes following diagnosis of glioblastoma”. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 47 (2018): 103-110.
  25. Lagerwaard F., et al. “Identification of prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases: a review of 1292 patients”. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics4 (1999): 795-803.
  26. Ruzevick J., et al. “Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the brain: an unrecognized pattern of distant spread in patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer”. Journal of Neuro-Oncology3 (2013): 449-454.
  27. Nayak L., et al. “Epidemiology of brain metastases”. Current Oncology Reports1 (2012): 48-54.
  28. Chua ML., et al. “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. The Lancet10022 (2016): 1012-1024.
  29. Khanfir A., et al. “Prognostic factors in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma”. Cancer/Radiothérapie8 (2007): 461-464.
  30. Kokko L-L., et al. “Significance of site-specific prognosis of cancer stem cell marker CD44 in head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma”. Oral Oncology6 (2011): 510-516.
  31. Cooper JS., et al. “National Cancer Database report on cancer of the head and neck: 10‐year update”. Head and Neck: Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck6 (2009): 748-758.
  32. Zini A., et al. “Oral cancer over four decades: epidemiology, trends, histology, and survival by anatomical sites”. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine4 (2010): 299-305.

Citation

Citation: Wayne D Hsueh., et al. “Characterizing the Effects of Site-Specific Metastases on Nasopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Survival".Acta Scientific Otolaryngology 3.10 (2020): 24-31.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2020 Wayne D Hsueh., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate34%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.871

Indexed In








News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 25, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US