Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 8 Issue 1

Antimicrobial Properties and Phytochemical Analysis of Mustard Leaves (Brassica juncea)

Ede Tyrell1*, Bibi Ally-Charles1, Basil Dey2, Rachel Cecil1 and Andrew Hutson1

1School of Allied Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Guyana, Guyana
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, Guyana

*Corresponding Author: Ede Tyrell, Senior Lecturer, School of Allied Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Guyana, Guyana.

Received: December 05, 2023; Published: December 27, 2023

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaves from the mustard plant (Brassica juncea) against various strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Different concentrations of three solvents were used, and we also sought to identify some of the phytochemicals present.

Materials and Methods: The extracts from the leaves were obtained using ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Serial dilution was used to obtain varying concentrations of the extracts (100-0.78 mg/ml) and sterile filter paper discs were placed in the extracts. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method was done, using Mueller Hinton agar for the bacteria, and Sabouraud Dextrose agar for the fungi. Discs were placed in triplicate. Discs soaked in pure solvent, were used as the negative control. Ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and tetracycline constituted the positive controls for the bacteria, and fluconazole and ketoconazole, for the fungi. After incubation, zones of inhibition around the discs were measured in millimeters and the results expressed as mean  ±  Standard Deviation. Screening for six phytochemicals was done using standard techniques.

Results: The most effective solvent was ethyl acetate (EA) at 100 mg/ml concentration. The MIC exhibited by EA extracts against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was 6 mg/ml; against K. pneumoniae 700603, it was 1.6 mg/ml; and against K. pneumoniae ESBL in-house strain, it was 0.8 mg/ml. The zone diameters for 100 mg/ml EA for P aeruginosa; K. pneumoniae 700603; and K. pneumoniae ESBL were 13.3 ± 1.5mm; 20.7 ± 5mm and 13.0mm respectively; and they showed resistance to tetracycline; ceftazidime; and ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, respectively. Two of the C. albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole but susceptible to EA extracts. The MIC of EA extracts against C. neoformans was 0.8 mg/ml with a zone diameter of 15.7 ± 4.0mm at 12.5 mg/ml concentration. Terpenoids and steroids were found in all of the extracts but the only unique parameter in the EA extracts was alkaloids.

Conclusions: Mustard leaves (B. juncea) clearly possess promising antimicrobial properties. Further investigations should focus on EA extracts and their antimicrobial effects on clinical isolates and a comprehensive analysis of their phytochemical constituents.

 Keywords: Antibacterial; Antifungal; Brassica juncea; Solvents; Phytochemicals

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Citation

Citation: Ede Tyrell., et al. “Antimicrobial Properties and Phytochemical Analysis of Mustard Leaves (Brassica juncea)”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 8.1 (2024): 82-93.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Ede Tyrell., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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