Line Spread Test (LST) Results for Commercially Available Universal Design Foods (UDF: Can be Crushed with the Tongue; “Daikon Radish with Minced Chicken Sauce” and “Sweet Potato and Bean Paste”) – Combination Results of Two Types of UDF and Eight Types of Thickeners
Sahoko Ito1, Shoko Kondo2, Mayumi Hirabayashi3 and Naomi Katayama1,4*
1Nagoya Women’s University, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Naguoya City, Aichi, Japan
2Watanabe Hospital, Noma, Mihama Town, Aichi, Japan
3Aichi Prefecture Blue Bird Medical Rehabilitation Center, Ichinoiya City, Aichi, Japan
4Nagoya Women’s University, Department of Health and Nutrition Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan
*Corresponding Author: ANaomi Katayama, Nagoya Women’s University, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Naguoya City, Aichi, Japan.
July 31, 2023; Published: July 04, 2023
Japan is a super-aged society. As a result, more and more families are providing nursing care at home. The problem of food, which is a burden on the family in home care, is an issue that should be resolved as soon as possible. Therefore, in this study, we measured and compared the viscosity of meals prepared by adding eight types of thickening available universal design food (UDF: can be crushed with the tongue) using a line spread test (LST). Based on these results, we discussed the adjustment of nursing care food that is easy to swallow. UDF (can be crushed with the tongue: “Daikon radish with minced chicken sauce” and “Sweet potato and Bean paste”) were used. After adding 1 g, 2 g, and 3 g of each of the eight types of thickeners to commercially available shrimp gratin, a line spread test (LST) was performed using a superficial thickness measuring plate (manufactured by Saraya Co., Ltd.). “Sweet potato and Bean paste” had a high carbohydrate content, and became pasty even after the mixer treatment, and had sufficient viscosity, eliminating the need for a thickener. However, UDF (“Daikon radish with minced chicken sauce”), which has a high water content, had low viscosity after the mixer treatment, and it was necessary to add a thickener. Addition of 3 g of any of the eight types of thickeners to UDF (“Daikon radish with minced chicken sauce”) gave a viscosity that was easy to swallow. Eight kinds of thickeners are commercially available products containing xanthan gum. In the future, it will be necessary to investigate the effects of thickeners on universal design foods (UDF) that can be crushed with the tongue and have different nutritional values.
Keywords: Nursing Care Food; Universal Design Food; Line Spread Test; Thickener
- Leder SB., et al. “Promoting safe swallowing when puree is swallowed without aspiration but thin liquid is aspirated: nectar is enough”. Dysphagia 28 (2013): 58-62.
- Murray J., et al. “Intake of thickened liquids by hospitalized adults with dysphagia after stroke”. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 16 (2014): 486-494.
- Shoko Kondo., et al. “Research on the combination of commercially available thickeners and nutritional supplemental drink –aiming at the care food that can be done in the general family”. Advances in Nutrition and Food science (2019): 1-9.
- Naomi Katayama., et al. “Research on the Combination of Commercially Available Thickeners and Commercially Available Nursing Food -By using Universal - Design Food: UDF (Do not have to Bite)”. Global Journal of Medical Research11 (2020): 49-53.
- Mayumi Hirabayashi., et al. “Research on the Combination of Commercially Available Thickeners and Commercially Available Nursing Food-Universal Design Food: UDF (Can be Crushed with Gums)”. Global Journal of Medical Research 11 (2020): 11-15.
- Mayumi Hirabayashi., et al. “Research on the Combination of Commercially Available Thickeners and Commercially Available Nursing Food -Aiming for Viscosity Adjustment that can be done at Home”. Global Journal of Medical Research11 (2020): 43-47.
- Sahoko Ito., et al. “Viscosity Measurement Results of Commercially Available Universal Design Food (UDF: Can be crushed with the tongue) using the Line Spread Test (LST)”. Global Journal of Medical Research 4 (2023): 55-61.
- Hirabayashi M and Katayama N. “Comparison of Line Spread Test (LST) Results of Eight Different types of Thickeners Performed on Vegetable Menus (Salmon and Vegetable with Egg sauce) that can be Crushed with Gums”. Open Access Journal of Biomedical Science6 (2021): 1323-1331.
- Claire de Saint-Aubert., et al. “Comparison of 2 tests used for the classification of food thickeners in the management of dysphagia. Gums and stabilisers for the food industry 17 (2013): 2014.
- Nagai Y and Yamamura C. “Changes of Basic Gustatory Thresholds and Gustatory Intersities by Thickener Addition”. The Japanese Journal of Dysphagia Rehabilitation2 (2014): 131-140.
- Nakamura M., et al. “Applicability of Modified Line Spread Test for Evaluating Physical Properties of Thickened Liquid Foods Prepared by Instant Food Thickeners”. The Japanese Journal of Dysphagia Rehabilitation3 (2009): 197-206.
- Nakamura M., et al. “Physical Properties of Index foods for the Thickness: Classification of Various Index foods by Thickness by the Line Spread Test”. The Japanese Journal of Dysphagia Rehabilitation2 (2012): 155-164.
- Iwasaki Y., et al. “Study a of Incex (Model food) for Thickener Solutions when Users Prepare Them – Evaluation for Physical Measurements and Non-Oral Sensory Properties”. The Japanese Journal of Dysphagia Rehabilitation1 (2011): 3-13.
- Kim SG., et al. “Relationship between Apparent Viscosity and Line-Spread Test Measurement of Thickened Fruit Juices Prepared with a Xanthan Gum-based Thickener”. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science3 (2014): 242-245.
- Yoshinaga N., et al. “Evaluation of the Texture of Food for the Dysphagia Diet Served in Hospitals”. Nagasaki International University Review 12 (2017): 199-209.
- Shiozawa K., et al. “Influence of a Thickening Agent on the Swallowing Threshold”. Journal of Japanese Society for Masticatory Science and Health Promotion1 (2007): 27-34.
- Kanaoka S., et al. “Prevention of aspiration pneumonia due to gastroesophageal reflux during enteral nutrition and long term effect of patient’s QOL (quality of life) using pectin gel”. The Journal of Japanese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1 (2005): 85-89.
- Tomita T., et al. “Effect of Food Thickener on Disintegration and Dissolution of Magnesium Oxide Tablets”. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan6 (2015): 835-840.
- Hashimoto Y., et al. “Adsorption of drugs to soluble dietary fiber used as thickeners”. Japanese Journal of Food Chemistry and Safety 3 (2016): 113-117.