Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 1

Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamommum verum J. Presl.) on Blood Lipids, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis, and Total Antioxidant Status in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

Surendra Kumar Verma1*, Vartika Jain2 and SS Katewa3

1Department of Medicine, Pacific Medical College and Hospitals, Udaipur, Rajasthan and Former Chief Investigator, Indigenous Drug Research Centre, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, India
2Department of Botany, Govt. Meera Girls College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
3Former Professor and Head, Department of Botany, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

*Corresponding Author: Surendra Kumar Verma, Department of Medicine, Pacific Medical College and Hospitals, Udaipur, Rajasthan and Former Chief Investigator, Indigenous Drug Research Centre, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, India.

Received: November 21, 2022; Published: December 29, 2022


Background: Spices and condiments are reported to possess many health-beneficial activities. Cinnamon (Cinnamommum verum J. Presl.) is a well-known spice used in preparation of many cuisines and sweet dishes. Several scientific studies have reported its protective role in modification of risk factors associated with cardio-vascular diseases. Traditional medicine also recommends its use for treatment of heart disease. In view of all this, its bark powder was evaluated for its effect on blood lipids, fibrinolysis, fibrinogen and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease.

Methods: Forty individuals (50-70 years) with ischemic heart disease were selected for the study and divided into two groups of twenty each. Group I (Treated) received 3 g Cinnamon powder in two divided doses while Group II (Placebo) received matched placebo capsules for four weeks. Blood samples were collected initially and at the end of four weeks for analysis of lipid profile, fibrinogen, fibrinolytic activity and total antioxidant status.

Results: Administration of Cinnamon significantly (p < 0.001) reduced atherogenic lipids without significant alteration in HDL-cholesterol. A statistically significant enhancement in Plasma fibrinolytic activity (p < 0.001) and serum total antioxidant status (p < 0.05) was observed at the end of the study. The placebo group however did not show significant alteration in these parameters. It was tolerated well without any untoward effects.

Conclusion: Four weeks supplementation of Cinnamon (1.5g twice daily) to patients having ischemic heart disease favorably affects various lipid parameters, fibrinolytic activity and total antioxidant status in a statistically significant manner.

Keywords: Non-HDL-Cholesterol; Atherogenic Index; Cinnamaldehyde; Cholesterol; Atherosclerosis


  1. Rastogi S., et al. “Spices: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Health”. Current Pharmaceutical Design23.7 (2017): 989-998.
  2. Vasanthi HR and Parameswari RP. “Indian spices for healthy heart - an overview”. Current Cardiology Reviews6.4 (2010): 274-279.
  3. Verma SK and Bordia A. “Commonly used condiments in North India - their medicinal properties and relevant information. Project report submitted to Spices Board of India (Ministry of Commerce), Cochin”. (1992).
  4. Verma SK., et al. "Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)”. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 46 (2009): 503-506.
  5. Verma SK., et al. "Greater Cardamom (Amomum subulatum) A cardio-adaptogen against physical stress”. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 4.2 (2010): 55-58.
  6. Jain V and Jain SK. “Compendium of Indian folk medicine and Ethnobotany (1991-2015)”. Deep Publications, New Delhi. (2016).
  7. Mang B., et al. “Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA1C, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2”. European Journal of Clinical Investigation5 (2006): 340-344.
  8. Kumar S., et al. “Pharmacological properties and their medicinal uses of Cinnamomum: a review”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 71 (2019): 1735-1761.
  9. Stevens N and Allred K. “Antidiabetic Potential of Volatile Cinnamon Oil: A review and exploration of mechanisms using in silico molecular docking simulations”. Molecules27 (2022): 853.
  10. Aggarwal S., et al. Cinnamomum zeylanicumextract and its bioactive component cinnamaldehyde show anti-tumor effects via inhibition of multiple cellular pathways”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 13 (2022): 918479.
  11. Davis PA and Yokoyama W. “Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: Meta-analysis”. Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (2011): 884-889. 
  12. Dhuley JN. “Antioxidant effects of Cinnamon bark and Greater cardamom seeds in rats fed high fat diet”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 37 (1999): 238-242.
  13. Javed I., et al. “Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumin hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits”. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences1 (2012): 141-147.
  14. Akira T., et al. “Pharmacological study on the antiulcerogenic activity of Chinese cinnamon”. Planta Medica 6 (1986): 440.
  15. Sarkar PR. “Yogic treatments and natural remedies”. 5th West Bengal, AMPS publications, (2011).
  16. Buckell M and Elliot FA. “The effect of citrate on euglobulin methods of estimation of fibrinolytic activity”. Journal Clinical Pathology 11 (1958): 403.
  17. Nath RL and Debnath B. “Determination of plasma fibrinogen in human subjects”. Journal of Indian Medical Association 54 (1970): 93.
  18. Allain CC., et al. “Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol”. Clinical Chemistry 20 (1974): 470-475.
  19. Fossati P and Lorenzo P. “Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide”. Clinical Chemistry 28 (1982): 2077-2079.
  20. Izzo C., et al. “Improved method for determination of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Isolation of high density liporoteins by use of polyethylene glycol 6000”. Clinical Chemistry 27 (1981): 371-374.
  21. Friedwald WT., et al. “Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge”. Clinical Chemistry 18 (1972): 499-502.
  22. Miller NJ. “A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates”. Clinical Science 84 (1993): 407-412.
  23. Puri R., et al. “Non-HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides. Implications for Coronary Atheroma Progression and Clinical Events”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 36 (2016): 2220-2228.
  24. Verma SK. “Effect of certain herbs on some risk factors of ischemic heart disease in man”. D.Sc. Thesis. Indian Board of Alternative Medicine, Kolkata (2002).
  25. Augusti KT., et al. “Role of dietary fibers and nutraceuticals in preventing diseases”. Hyderabad, PharmaMed Press (2009).
  26. Shang C., et al. “Beneficial effects of cinnamon and its extracts in the management of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes”. Food and Function24 (2021): 12194-12220.
  27. Lopes BP., et al. “Cinnamon extract improves the body composition and attenuates lipogenic processes in the liver and adipose tissue of rats”. Food and Function10 (2015): 3257-3265.
  28. Kaur N., et al. “Cinnamon attenuates adiposity and affects the expression of metabolic genes in Diet-Induced obesity model of zebrafish”. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology1 (2019): 2930-2939.
  29. Heinrich J and Assmann G. “Fibrinogen and Cardiovascular risk”. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk3 (1995): 197-205.
  30. Fearnley WB. “Blood fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus and its bearing on ischemic heart disease and obesity”. British Medical Journal 1 (1963): 921-923.
  31. Huang D. “Dietary Antioxidants and Health Promotion”. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)1 (2018): 9.
  32. Shobana S and Naidu KA. “Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices”. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids2 (2000): 107-110.
  33. Shan B., et al. “Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents”. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry20 (2005): 7749-7759.
  34. Rao PV and Gan SH. “Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant”. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM (2014): 642942.
  35. Neto JGO., et al. “Cinnamaldehyde Treatment during adolescence improves white and brown adipose tissue metabolism in a male rat model of early obesity”. Food Function13 (2022): 3405-3418.
  36. Chang S., et al. “Preparation of Novel Cinnamaldehyde Derivative-BSA nanoparticles with high stability, good cell penetrating ability, and promising anticancer activity”. Colloids Surfaces A Physico chemistry Eng. Aspects624 (2021): 126765.
  37. Huang J., et al. “Cinnamaldehyde reduction of platelet aggregation and thrombosis in rodents”. Thrombosis Research3 (2007): 337-342.
  38. Buglak NE., et al. “Cinnamic aldehyde inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats”. Redox Biology 19 (2018): 166-178.
  39. Nour OAA., et al.“Cinnamaldehyde exerts vasculoprotective effects in hypercholestrolemic rabbits”. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives in Pharmacology 391 (2018): 1203-1219.
  40. Zhao H., et al. “Cinnamaldehyde ameliorates LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction via TLR4-NOX4 pathway: The regulation of autophagy and ROS production”. Journal of Molecular Cellular Cardiology101 (2016): 11-12.
  41. Wang P. “Cinnamaldehyde Ameliorates Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice by Activating Nrf2”. American Journal of Hypertension 33 (2020): 610-619.
  42. Markey O., et al. “Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast”. Cardiovascular diabetology10 (2011): 78.
  43. Vafa M., et al. "Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients”. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 3 (2012): 531-536.
  44. Akilen R., et al. “Cinnamon in glycemic control: Systemic review and meta-analysis”. Clinical Nutrition 31 (2012): 609-615.
  45. Khan A., et al. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care 26 (2003): 3215-3218.
  46. Ranasinghe P., et al. “Evaluation of pharmacodynamic properties and safety of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) in healthy adults: a phase I clinical trial”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine1 (2017): 550.
  47. Kort DH and RA Lobo. “Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology5 (2014): 487.e1-6.


Citation: Surendra Kumar Verma., et al. “Effect of Cinnamon (Cinnamommum verum J. Presl.) on Blood Lipids, Fibrinogen, Fibrinolysis, and Total Antioxidant Status in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 7.1 (2023): .


Copyright: © 2022 Surendra Kumar Verma., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US