Issack Biyong1-4*, Raymond Traube1,2, Markéta Stacch1, Irène Coretta Biyong Ngo Beguel5, Addo Boafo6 and Kossi B Kounou7
1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Centre Neuchâtelois De Psychiatrie (CNPea), Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland
2Borel Foundation: Pedagogical and Therapeutic Center of Dombresson (PTCD), Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland
3PSI: PSY-SCAN Insitute, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
4Center of Psychotraumatology and Mediation (CPM) of the Institute of Psychotraumatology and Mediation (IPM-International), Neuchâtel, Switzerland
5Center of Psychotraumatology and Mediation (CPM), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
6Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Otatwa, Ontario, Canada
7Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Traumatic Stress (EA 4560), University of Toulouse, France
*Corresponding Author: Issack Biyong, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Centre Neuchâtelois De Psychiatrie (CNPea), Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland.
Received: April 15, 2022; Published: July 13, 2022
Introduction: Encopresis is the appearance of involuntary stool emissions more than once a month for 6 months after the age of 4 years outside of any place of cleanliness. It decreases with age and is more common in boys than in girls. There are two different classifications: primary and secondary encopresis, non-retentive and retentive encopresis. This disorder can be caused by several factors: educational, psychological, pathophysiological, psychopathological, etc. We used the various knowledge and techniques accumulated over the history of the development of hypnosis, cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) and the systemic approach as therapeutic means in the pragmatic sense to help this young patient.
Method: To confirm our hypotheses, we used several tools, in particular: a tape recorder and audio cassettes, note-taking on paper, sheets for collecting data after the exercise. For this study, four different phases were listed during this treatment. These are: the creation of a good relationship and the therapeutic framework, the learning of hypnosis and self-hypnosis associated with behavioral exercises, the stabilization phase, the phase of consolidation and generalization of acquired knowledge educationally, academically, socially and emotionally.
Results: At the 2nd session, 2 weeks after admission: A summary meeting with the therapeutic team and the family was held. The results were presented, namely: the cognitive psychological assessment (WISC-III), the emotional test and the psychometric assessment: HAS = 12 points (mild intensity for generalized anxiety) and BDI = 6 points (no depression).
From the 5th session, 8 weeks after admission, the HAS = 1 point (no generalized anxiety) and the BDI = 0 point (absence of depression). We can notice that the positive results were fast with the complete absence of encopresis from the 5th session of the HBT.
Discussion: In our study, the metaphors corresponding to the reality of the patient, his problem and the therapeutic context, were like catalysts in the psychocorporal cure. This HBT led our patient to increase his mastery and his internal self-control and to manage his anxiety towards other ways adapted to reality other than encopresis. The use of the double link made it possible to transform the discomfort caused by encopresis into a playful pleasure with the mastery of the anal erogenous region according to Freud , a necessary step to stabilize its healing. Thereafter, the consolidation was possible by the technique of the affective bridge of Waltkins quoted by Araoz .
Conclusion: The long-term therapeutic efficacy of encopresis treatment methods, whether psychoanalytically inspired, cognitive-behavioural, based on biofeedback, whether medical or mixed, tends to be the same. HBT is not used here as a miracle recipe, it is associated with institutional care requiring understanding, cognitive and behavioral science techniques of the psychodynamic, family, systemic context and the network of stakeholders.
Keywords: Encopresis; Hypnosis; Behavioral Therapy; Systemic; Institution
Citation: Issack Biyong., et al. “Hypno-behavioral Therapy, Systemic, and Institutional Management of Encopresis in Childhood and Adolescence”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.8 (2022): 43-55.
Copyright: © 2022 Issack Biyong., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.