The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Primary Health Care Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Zafer Khalid Algarni1, Muhammad Saim Khan2, Anas Abdullah Alshehri1 and Mostafa Kofi3*
1Family and Community Medicine - Resident, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
2Ophthalmologist - Senior Registrar, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
3Professor, Family and Community Medicine - Consultant, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Mostafa Kofi, Professor, Family and Community Medicine - Consultant, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia.
June 08, 2022; Published: June 21, 2022
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the preventable serious complications of diabetes mellitus and if not properly discovered and managed may lead to blindness.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of DR and its severity among type 2 diabetic patients.
Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out among a consecutive sample of type 2 diabetic patients, who were followed up in Retina clinic WAZARAT primary healthcare (PHC), Prince Sultan Military Medical Center (PSMMC), Riyadh. A well-structured data sheet form was used to collect data, included demographic factor and clinical parameters.
Results: The study included 376 patients. Their age ranged between 31 and 84 years with an arithmetic mean of 58.03 years and standard deviation of (±) 10.06 years. Prevalence of DR among type 2 diabetic patients was 45.2%. The most frequently reported type was non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (74.1%). Macular edema was observed among 43.5% of patients with DR and 19.7% of the total patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis results revealed that with increase in patient`s age by one year, there was increase in the risk of developing DR by 8% (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.12), p < 0.001. Female patients were at almost double risk for developing DR compared to male patients (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.05-1.12), p < 0.001. Compared to patients whose HbA1c% ranged between 6.5 and 7.9% as a reference category, those with HbA1c% level ranged between 8 and 9.9% and ≥10% were at higher significant risk for developing DR (AOR = 2.23; 95%CI: 1.31-3.80, p = 0.003 and AOR = 22.62; 95%CI: 9.78-52.35, p < 0.001), respectively.
Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy is a prevalent complication among type 2 diabetic patients followed up in Retina clinic WAZARAT primary healthcare (PHC), PSMMC, Riyadh.
Keywords: Retinopathy; Type 2 Diabetes; Prevalence; Associated Factors
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