Interrelationship Between Thrombosis and COVID-19
Malerba Mario*, Barbieri Mariangela, Mondini Lucrezia, Ruggero Luca, Trotta Liliana and Ragnoli Beatrice
Respiratory Unit S. Andrea Hospital, Department of Traslational Medicine, School of Medicine, University Eastern Piedmont, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Malerba Mario, Professor, Respiratory Unit S. Andrea Hospital, Department of Traslational Medicine, School of Medicine, University Eastern Piedmont, Italy.
November 09, 2021; Published: January 17 , 2022
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In March 2020, the World Health Organization officially declared it as pandemic viral infection. Clinical manifestations include fever, dyspnea, cough, but can evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and COVID-associated-coagulopathy (CAC). The hypercoagulation state is based on an interaction between thrombosis and inflammation. The so-called CAC represents a key aspect in the genesis of organ damage from SARS-CoV-2. The prothrombotic status in COVID-19 disease cgan be explained by the increase of coagulation, levels of D dimer, lymphocytes, fibrinogen, IL-6 and prothrombin time, that are important laboratory parameters which indicate the COVID-19 and VTE severity.
The main characteristic of immune-thrombosis is the interaction between haemostasis and the innate immune system. The vascular damage in COVID-19 is induced by the endocytosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the host cells, which leads to pyroptosis. This status is a consequence of the direct virus-induced endothelial damage, leukocyte and cytokine-mediated activation of the platelets, release of TF and NETosis, intensified by activation of the complement system. In this review, the aim is providing an overview of the current knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis in different disease states that may occur in COVID-19 and informing on new areas of research.
Keywords: Thrombosis; COVID-19; Hypercoagulation; Inflammatory Cytokine Storm
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