Rakesh Holla A1*, Amit Sharma2 and Naveen Chawla3
1Department of Pathology, Military Hospital, District Cachar, Silchar, Assam, India
2Department of Pathology, Sampurna Sodani Diagnostics, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India
3Department of Pathology, INHS Asvini, RC Church, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding Author: Rakesh Holla A, Department of Pathology, Military Hospital, District Cachar, Silchar, Assam, India.
Received: December 09, 2021; Published: January 07, 2022
Introduction: The World Health Organisation declared Covid-19 outbreak by SARS-CoV-2 as a global Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the International Health Regulations on 30 January 2020 and was then further characterized as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The pandemic has since then swept the globe as an unprecedented event causing widespread disruption and mayhem in terms of economic upheaval and health care ruin, dredging up the fragility of health services and public health systems worldwide. The Government of India (GoI) introduced new vaccines for mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the intent to keep the menace of the virus pandemic at bay and included Covishield (the name employed in India for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine), a non-replicating, adenovirus vector vaccine carrying a recombinant spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. The situation in India in the April and May months of 2021 mandated a unified and comprehensive response by everyone at the helm when the country was struck by the second wave of Covid-19. An observational study was carried out to assess the course and the effects of SARS-CoV2 on the biochemical and haematological profile of Covid-19 patients and to draw comparisons between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups of people.
Method: The study was carried out at two different locations in India for two different groups of population, one vaccinated against Covid-19 by two doses of Covishield vaccine while the other group which was not being vaccinated against Covid-19. The non-vaccinated group comprised entirely of civilian population at Bihta, state of Bihar in India who were referred by the government medical hospital to a Covid hospital established by the Indian Army. The vaccinated group comprised of those vaccinated against Covid-19 with two doses, atleast 28 days apart, of Covishield vaccine. A total of 138 Covid-19 patients, 78 covid-19 patients of non-vaccinated group and 60 Covid-19 patients of vaccinated group were studied between 01 May 2021 and 31 July 2021. The patients were evaluated in terms of clinical presentation, haematological and biochemical laboratory parameters including inflammatory markers and mortality rates.
Result: The study reveals that the vaccinated cohort with breakthrough infections following Covid-19 vaccination with two doses of Covishield Vaccine had only mild symptoms and no deaths being reported while the non-vaccinated cohort presented with moderate to severe Covid-19, deranged laboratory parameters and increased mortality rate.
Conclusion: The study clearly demonstrates that Covid-19 vaccination with two doses of Covishield vaccine, offers significant protection against severe infections and death from Covid-19. While the study highlights the importance of Covid-19 vaccination particularly amongst the high risk groups such as those with co-morbid conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, etc., it also emphasizes the need for observing Covid appropriate behaviour such as social distancing, frequent hand hygiene and wearing of face mask as breakthrough infections were noted amongst the vaccinated cohort in this study for want of such measures in the milieu.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2); Covid-19 Vaccination; Covishield Vaccine; Breakthrough Infections; Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio; Delta Variant; Inflammatory Markers
Citation: Rakesh Holla A., et al. “A Study on Clinicopathological Features of Covid-19 Among Vaccinated and Non-vaccinated People”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.2 (2022): 18-31.
Copyright: © 2022 Rakesh Holla A., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.