Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2582-0931)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 10

COVID-19 and Alcohol - A Review

Supriya Garapati1, Lakshmi Jyothi Tadi2*, Ariyanachi K3 and Pravin P4

1Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, India
2Additional Professor, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, India
3Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, India
4Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad, India

*Corresponding Author: Lakshmi Jyothi Tadi, Additional Professor, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, India.

Received: August 19,2021 Published: September 22, 2021

Citation: Lakshmi Jyothi Tadi., et al. “COVID-19 and Alcohol - A Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.10 (2021): 125-130.

Abstract

Background: Alcohol use has been associated to a number of disorders, including SARS-CoV-2 infection since Alcohol can have a negative impact on the immune system through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms like reducing the number of T lymphocytes, favoring a pro-inflammatory status through an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF α) and interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1, IL-6), by decreasing the function, number of NK (Natural Killers) cells responsible for removing infected or malignant cells, disturbing the macrophage functions in the lung alveoli and damage to the respiratory ciliated cells which plays an essential role in filtering pathogenic microorganisms. It can also worsen mental and biological conditions, as well as predispose to behaviour that increase the risk of infection and disease severity, though not necessarily sociopathic or violent behaviour. Another important factor is malnutrition secondary to excessive alcohol intake.

Introduction: Alcohol misuse impairs both the innate and adaptive immune systems, potentially lowering resistance to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and speeding up the onset of coronavirus illness (COVID-19). Alcohol use has been associated to several disorders, including SARS-CoV-2 infection since Alcohol can have a negative impact on the immune system through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms.

Aims and Objectives

  • To review the relationship between Covid-19 and alcoholism
  • To learn about the illness signs of alcohol use in Covid-19
  • To compare the mortality of alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the covid-19 population.
  • To learn about the effects of alcohol withdrawal in the aftermath of the pandemic.

Methodology: Data was gathered from PubMed Central, Medscape, NCBI's website, PMC, and BMJ journals, among other sources. The data on the relationship between alcohol and Covid-19 has been examined, analysed, and summarised in this publication.

Review: When it comes to COVID-19, patients with alcohol use disorder or alcohol-related liver disease, as well as relevant comorbidities, are at a higher risk.

The World Health Organization (World Health Organization, 2020) [26] and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2020) [27] have issued comments stating that heavy alcohol consumption does not prevent COVID-19 infection.

Mucociliary clearance is regarded to be the first line of defence against inhaled pathogenic microorganisms, even though alcohol has long been known to decrease coughing (Calesnick and Vernick, 1971). Heavy drinking disrupts the cilia's cyclic nucleotide pathway, limiting cilia beat frequency from increasing (Wyatt and Sisson, 2001) [28].

Discussion: Alcohol raises the risk of death and worsens the symptoms of ARDS. By increasing alveolar barrier permeability, alcohol consumption affects the oxidative stress response and makes the lungs more sensitive to oedematous stress. AUD is often associated with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, which also increase the risk for complications in COVID-19 [34].

Conclusion: Alcohol influences practically every lung cell. Most of these modifications may increase the likelihood of COVID-19 infection and more severe pneumonia or ARDS in heavy drinkers.

Keywords: Alcohol; Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

Bibliography

  1. Tsatsakis A., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and its clinical implications: An integrative overview of the pharmacotherapeutic management of COVID-19”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 146 (2020): 111769.
  2. Calina Daniela., et al. “COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: Impacts and interconnections”. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 529-535.
  3. Tsatsakis Aristidis., et al. “COVID-19, an opportunity to reevaluate the correlation between long-term effects of anthropogenic pollutants on viral epidemic/pandemic events and prevalence”. Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 141 (2020): 111418.
  4. Sharifi-Rad M., et al. “Impact of Natural Compounds on Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Preclinical to Pharmacotherapeutics”. Clinical Medicine 4 (2020): 1061.
  5. Calina Daniela., et al. “COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: Impacts and interconnections”. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 529-535.
  6. Rehm, Jürgen., et al. “Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy”. Drug and Alcohol Review4 (2020): 301-304.
  7. Tsatsakis A., et al. “A Mechanistic and Pathophysiological Approach for Stroke Associated with Drugs of Abuse”. Journal of Clinical Medicine9 (2019).
  8. Salehi Bahare., et al. “Epibatidine: A Promising Natural Alkaloid in Health”. Biomolecules 1 (2018): 6.
  9. Georgakouli Kalliopi., et al. “Effects of acute exercise on liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers”. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine6 (2015): 2015-2022.
  10. Michalodimitrakis M N., et al. “Suicide by alcohol overdose”. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine2 (1997): 91-94.
  11. Laura nussbaum., et al. “Modern treatment approaches in psychoses. pharmacogenetic, neuroimagistic and clinical implications”. Farmacia 65 (2017) 75-81.
  12. Pennisi Manuela., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 and the Nervous System: From Clinical Features to Molecular Mechanisms”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences15 (2020): 5475.
  13. Taylor and Francis Group. "New study shows every week of lockdown increases binge drinking”. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 December (2020).
  14. Grossman Elyse R., et al. “Alcohol Consumption during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey of US Adults”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health24 (2020): 9189.
  15. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak [online information portal]. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe (2020).
  16. Mehrpour Omid., et al. “Toll of acute methanol poisoning for preventing COVID-19”. Archives of Toxicology6 (2020): 2259-2260.
  17. Dubey Souvik., et al. “Psychosocial impact of COVID-19”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome5 (2020): 779-788.
  18. Matei Valentin., et al. “Knowledge of Prevention Measures and Information About Coronavirus in Romanian Male Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Severe Alcohol Use Disorder”. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 16 (2020): 2857-2864.
  19. Ram A Sharma, MD., et al. “Alcohol Withdrawal Rates in Hospitalized Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic”. JAMA Network Open3 (2021): e210422.
  20. Da Ben L., et al. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 Hangover: A Rising Tide of Alcohol Use Disorder and Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease”. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)3 (2020): 1102-1108.
  21. Rehm Jürgen., et al. “Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy”. Drug and Alcohol Review4 (2020): 301-304.
  22. de Goeij Moniek C M., et al. “How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review”. Social Science Medicine 131 (2015): 131-146.
  23. Borkenstein R F and H W Smith. “The Breathalyzer and Its Applications”. Medicine, Science and the Law1 (1961): 13-22.
  24. de Roux Andrés., et al. “Impact of alcohol abuse in the etiology and severity of community-acquired pneumonia”. Chest5 (2006): 1219-1225.
  25. Wyatt Todd A., et al. “Alcohol potentiates RSV-mediated injury to ciliated airway epithelium”. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 80 (2019): 17-24.
  26. World Health Organization; Alcohol and Covid 19: What you need to know (2020).
  27. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Alcohol and covid 19 (2020).
  28. Wyatt T A and J H Sisson. “Chronic ethanol downregulates PKA activation and ciliary beating in bovine bronchial epithelial cells”. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology3 (2001): L575-581.
  29. Bailey Kristina L., et al. “Oxidative stress associated with aging activates protein kinase Cε, leading to cilia slowing”. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology5 (2018): L882-L890.
  30. Jain Vageesh and Jin-Min Yuan. “Predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Public Health5 (2020): 533-546.
  31. Nihlén Ulf., et al. “Alcohol-induced upper airway symptoms: prevalence and co-morbidity". Respiratory Medicine6 (2005): 762-769.
  32. Esper A., et al. “The effect of alcohol abuse on ARDS and multiple organ dysfunction”. Minerva Anestesiologica6 (2006): 375-381.
  33. Fan Xiude., et al. “Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Obese Patients with COVID-19: A Mendelian Randomization Study Using UK Biobank”. Nutrients 5 (2021): 1592.
  34. Kushner Tatyana and John Cafardi. “Chronic Liver Disease and COVID-19: Alcohol Use Disorder/Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, Autoimmune Liver Disease, and Compensated Cirrhosis”. Clinical Liver Disease5 (2020): 195-199.

Copyright: © 2021 Lakshmi Jyothi Tadi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US