Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2582-0931)

Case Report Volume 5 Issue 9

Detection and Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma and its Consequences in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Luljeta Abdullahu1* and Naser Gjonbalaj2

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Republic of Kosovo
2Clinic of Radiology, Prishtina Republic of Kosova, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Republic of Kosovo

*Corresponding Author: Luljeta Abdullahu, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Republic of Kosovo.

Received: July 26, 2021; Published: August 24, 2021

Citation: Luljeta Abdullahu and Naser Gjonbalaj. “Detection and Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma and its Consequences in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.9 (2021): 131-135.


Background: Hepatitis-B virus (HBV) infection among people living with HIV (PLWH) is highly endemic in South Africa. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for the last three decades, chronic HBV infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among PLWH. Although the majority of opportunistic infection has been reduced in an individual with HIV since the universal test and treat (UTT) programme implemented in South Africa. HBV co-infection among PLWH is still accounting for high morbidity and mortality in South Africa.

Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in King Sabata Dalindyebo (KSD) sub-district municipality in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa to determine the prevalence of HBV Co-infection among people living with HIV.

Results: There were 602 PLWH participated in the study and two-third (65.5%) of them had screened for HBV coinfection. The mean age of the participant was 38.8 ± 10.5 years and the majority (75.1%) of them were female. The prevalence of HBV coinfection among PLWH was 12.2% and the males had three-time higher than female counterparts (χ2 = 12.8, p = 0.001). The HBV coinfection was more common among PLWH, who use alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The median CD4 count of participants was 508 (IQR = 307 to 715) and there was no significant association between HBV coinfection and CD4 count.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of HBV coinfection among PLWH in the Mthatha region of South Africa. The high prevalence of HBV coinfection recommends the need for routine screening of Hepatitis-B among HIV infected patients in South Africa.

Keywords: HBV; HIV; PLWH; UTT; Morbidity and Mortality


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Copyright: © 2021 Ramprakash Kaswa and Marietjie de Villiers. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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