Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 8

The Effect of the Transfer Matrix Applied to MIMO Systems in the Analysis of Cardiovascular Dynamics

Carlos Alvarez Picaza1*, Julián I Veglia1, Ángel E Piacenza2, Albert D Valdez1, Paola L Schlesinger1 and Juan A Chiozza1

1Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina
2Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina

*Corresponding Author: Carlos Alvarez Picaza, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

Received: May 15, 2021; Published: July 22, 2021


MIMO systems allow us to work in the state-space without restrictions. The use of the Modern Control Theory let to specify new behaviors of complex structures. We describe the dynamics of the cardiovascular system by finding the input-output relationships in the state-space of a functional cardiac model, based on state equations and controllability criteria of control theory. The use of the transfer matrix applied to dynamic systems with many inputs and outputs allows addressing the treatment of cardiovascular dynamics with a different perspective. Based on the controllability criteria of dynamic systems we present an alternative method of analyzing the state of the arterial wall as a function of compliance. The unit step response of the multiple-input multiple-output system model illustrates the damping effect of the arterial wall to the pulsatility of the heart. In addition to verifying that hypertensive patients have less inertia of blood flow, it established that the internal controllability of the system can be affected as a function of input-output correlations.

Keywords: State-space; Transfer Function; Controllability


  1. C Cobellia and E Carson. “Introduction to Modeling in Physiology”. Academic Press, Elsevier. The Netherlands (2008).
  2. T Kind., et al. “Estimation of Three- and Four-Element Windkessel Parameters Using Subspace Model Identification". IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 7 (2010): 1531-1538.
  3. Y Nobuaki., et al. “Simulation Algorithm for the Coupling of the Left Ventricular Mechanical Model with Arbitrary Circulation Model". Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (2005): 7632-7635.
  4. DR Kerner. "Solving Windkessel Models with MLAB".
  5. R Burattini and G Gnudi. "Computer identification of models for the arterial tree input impedance: Comparison between two new simple models and first experimental results". Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 20 (1982): 134-144.
  6. N Stergiopulos., et al. “The Four-Element Windkessel Model". Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (1996): 1715-1716.
  7. A Capello and G Gnudi. “Analysis of the Arterial Pressure-Volume Curve in the Three-Element Windkessel Model”. Proceedings of the Conference of Computers in Cardiology (1993): 385-388.
  8. M Hlavác. “Windkessel model analysis in Matlab”.
  9. C Zervides and DR Hose. “A simple Computational Model-Based Validation of Guyton’s closed circuit analysis of the heart and the peripheral circulatory system”. 27Th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (2005): 5486-5489.
  10. T A Parlikar., et al. “Model-Based Estimation of Cardiac Output and Total Peripheral Resistance”. Computers in Cardiology 34 (2007): 379-382.
  11. T A Parlikar and G C Verghese. “A Simple Cycle-Averaged Model for Cardiovascular Dynamics”. Proceedings of the 27th of the Annual International Conference IEEE-EMBS (2005): 5490-5494.
  12. L Zhong., et al. “A Non-Invasive System for Assessment of Aortic Stiffness in Clinical Practice". Proceedings of the 27th of the Annual International Conference IEEE-EMBS (2005): 2248-2251.
  13. Grignola JC., et al. “Acute Pilmonary Hypertension: Protective Role of Vascular SmoothMuscle Activation”. Revista Española de Cardiología 56 (2003): 1077-1084.
  14. Monzón JE., et al. “Dynamic modeling of the vascular system in the state-space". Proceedings of the 32th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (2010): 2612-2615.
  15. JE Monzón., et al. “Blind source separation of electrocardiographic signals using system stability criteria". Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (2007): 3493-3496.
  16. JE Monzón., et al. “A multiple-input multiple-output system for modeling the cardiac dynamics". Proceedings of the 33th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS (2011): 978-1-4244-4122-8.
  17. Ogata K. “Ingeniería de Control Moderna”. 5ta Edición Ed. Pearson (2010).
  18. Z Liu., et al. “Estimation of the total arterial compliance: an improved method and evaluation of current methods". American Journal of Physiology – Heart3 (1986): 588-600.
  19. RS Reneman and APG Hoeks. "Arterial distensibility and compliance in hypertension". The Netherlands Journal of Medicine 4 (1995): 152-161.


Citation: Carlos Alvarez Picaza., et al. “The Effect of the Transfer Matrix Applied to MIMO Systems in the Analysis of Cardiovascular Dynamics”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 5.8 (2021): 85-92.


Copyright: © 2021 Carlos Alvarez Picaza., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.111

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US