Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS)(ISSN: 2582-0931)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 6

Epidemiology and Social Impact of Enuresia in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Badiambile MPULUMBA1*, Kasongo MUSASA2, Kalonji MUKENDI1, Yacioko MATUGULU1, Mulumba MBUYI4, Bakenge MANONGO1, Ntumba BAMBI3 and Tshilunda NGANDU1

1Faculty of Medicine and Public Health, Official University of Mbuji-Mayi, Kasaï Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo
2University of Mwene Ditu, Province of Lomami, Democratic Republic of Congo
3Higher Institute of Arts and Crafts (ISAM), Democratic Republic of the Congo
4Higher Institute of Commerce, Mbujimayi, Democratic Republic of the Congo

*Corresponding Author: Badiambile Mpulumba, Faculty of Medicine and Public Health, Official University of Mbuji-Mayi, Kasaï Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo. E-mail:,

Received: April 26, 2021; Published: May 27, 2021


Introduction: Enuresia remains unknown in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The objective was to assess the epidemiology and social impact of bedwetting in order to promote the overall management of enuretic children in Mbujimayi.

Methods: The study was descriptive across November 20 to December 20, 2020, including 272 family leaders of enuretic children.

Results: Female sex was predominant (87.87%); the average age were 36.82 ± 8.94 years; 79.41% were biological mothers and housewives (52.21%); 61.03% of fathers had the level of secondary and primary education for mothers (70.22%). The history of enuresis in both mother and father was (44.85% versus 18.75%). The case of bedwetting was 2 infants per household (34.56%). The blue hole affected both sexes in a positive way (50.77% versus 49.23%) and the 5-8 age group was affected (58%, 43%); 75% of the kids used to pee in bed every night. The enuretic child's managers did not consult a Doctor for bedwetting; The reason for the lack of consultation was that it would pass alone (62.87%). As for the impact, 43.38% of the respondents complained of the annoying smell. The origin of bedwetting was ignored by 39.34% of respondents, while 35.66% attributed a natural origin.

Conclusion: Bedwetting is a common disorder in households, with a significant social impact. Raising awareness among enuretic children about the need to consult a doctor for care would be an asset in mitigating the consequences of this disorder.

Keywords: : Epidemiology; Social Impact; Enurésia


  1. Nevéus T., et al. “The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: report from the standardisation committee of the International Children’s Continence Society”. Journal of Urology1 (2006): 314‑324.
  2. Haab F., et al. “Terminology of functional disorders of the lower urinary tract: French adaptation of the terminology of the International Children's Continence Society”. Progress in Urology6 (2004): 1103-1111.
  3. Haddad D. “Enuresia in school children aged 6 to 12 years”. Study of 05 cases, carried out at the U.S. D.S. of Ihadaden de Béjaia [Memory: Abderrahmane Mira University of Bejaia]. 2012-2013.
  4. Swiatek N. “Isolated primary enurestia of the child: why do parents consult? Observational study in the Midi-Pyrenees”. [Thesis: Toulouse Iii University - Paul Sabatier] (2015).
  5. VonGontard A., et al. “Family history of nocturnal enuresis and urinary incontinence: results from a large epidemiological study”. Journal of Urology6 (2011): 2303‑2306.
  6. El Koukouchi Abdennacir. “Interests and knowledge of general practitioners and paediatricians of the Ile de France on the management of bedwetting”. [thesis: Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7] (2014).
  7. Philippe C., et al. “Caring for the enuretic child without making it a disease”. Med Enf 27 (2007): 13946.
  8. Lottmann H. “French Observatory on the impact and management of nocturnal bedwetting in children and adolescents”. Medicine and Childhood (2009): 298-302.
  9. Forsythe W and Redmond A. “Enuresis and spontaneous cure rate. Study of 1129 enuretis”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 4 (1974): 259‑263.
  10. Yeung C., et al. “Differences in characteristics of nocturnal enuresis between children and adolescents: a critical appraisal from a large epidemiological study”. BJU International 5 (2006): 1069‑1073.
  11. Butler JR. “Impact of nocturnal enuresis on children and young people”. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 3 (2001): 169-176.
  12. Schulpen T. “The burden of nocturnal enuresis”. Acta Paediatric9 (1997): 981‑984.
  13. Butler R and McKenna S. “Overcoming parental intolerance in childhood nocturnal enuresis: a survey of professional opinion”. BJU International3 (2002): 295‑297.
  14. Van TN., et al. “Perceived stress of nocturnal enuresis in childhood”. British Journal of Urology 81 (1998): 98‑99.
  15. Eiberg H., et al. “Assignment or dominant inherited nocturnal enuresis (ENUR 1) to chromosome 13q”. Nature Genetics 10 (1995): 354-356.
  16. Lottmann H. “Treatment of nocturnal bedwetting in France”. Medical Press18 (2000): 987‑990.
  17. Antier E., et al. “First results of the national "pee in bed" survey”. Medicine Childhood8 (2003): 509‑510.
  18. Philippe C., et al. “Talking about bedwetting: survey of mothers”. Medicine Childhood1 (2011): 54‑59.
  19. Tricaud L. “Parental representations of nocturnal bedwetting and its care [Exercise thesis]. Medicine”. Angers (2013).
  20. Kaoutar L. “Enuresia in children: About 154 cases”. [memory]: Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech (2007).
  21. Arnell H., et al. “The genetics of primary nocturnal enuresis: inheritance and suggestion of a second major gene on chromosome 12q”. Journal of Medical Genetics 34 (1997): 360-365.
  22. Katayoun B., et al. “Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013”. International Journal of Pediatric (2014).
  23. Gur EP., et al. “Enuresis: prevalence, risk factors and urinary pathology among school children in Istanbul, Turkey”. Pediatrics International1 (2004): 58-63.
  24. Toktamis A., et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of day wetting and combined day and night wetting”. Urologia Internationalis1 (2008): 54-59.
  25. “Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: conservative management of urinary incontinence in childhood”. in Proceedings of the 2nd International Consultation on Incontinence, Paris, France (2002).
  26. MR Jarvelin., et al. “Enuresis in seven-year-old children”. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica1 (1988): 148-153.
  27. A Gunes., et al. “The epidemiology and factors associated with nocturnal enuresis among boarding and daytime school children in southeast of Turkey: a cross sectional study”. BMC Public Health 9 (2009): 357.
  28. C Ozden., et al. “Prevalence and associated factors of enuresis in Turkish children”. The International Brazilian Journal of Urology 2 (2007): 216-222.
  29. WW Qing., et al. “Bed-wetting in Chinese children: epidemiology and predictive factors”. Neurourology and Urodynamics 4 (2007): 512-517.


Citation: Mpulumba B., et al. “Epidemiology and Social Impact of Enuresia in the Democratic Republic of Congo”.Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 5.6 (2021): 140-148.


Copyright: © 2021 Mpulumba B., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.403

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US