Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2582-0931)

Mini ReviewVolume 5 Issue 6

Cutaneous Manifestation and Vasculitis of COVID-19 in Dermatology

Kazumi Fujioka*

Department of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

*Corresponding Author: Kazumi Fujioka, Department of Radiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Received: April 05, 2021; Published: May 06, 2021

Citation: Kazumi Fujioka. “Cutaneous Manifestation and Vasculitis of COVID-19 in Dermatology". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.6 (2021): 16-19.

Abstract

  The emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide outbreak and still has spread relentlessly and recrudescence due to the new mutants begin to occur. The respiratory failure from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) presents the major cause of mortality and multi-organ failure represents other causes of mortality in patients with COVID-19. It has been revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the protean clinical manifestations from head to toe, affecting the multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, brain, kidney, skin, and vasculature. In this article, the cutaneous features and vasculitis in COVID-19 in dermatological field were reviewed. Based on the evidences, it is suggested that the common cutaneous manifestation caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is chilblains. The direct-induced skin damage and/or a systemic inflammatory reaction by the indirect injury may be considered as the pathophysiological mechanisms in vasculitis of COVID-19. The author suggests that COVID-19 represents an endothelial disease and may be a systemic disease or a multiorgan disease based on the vasculitis in the microvasculature.

Keywords: Vasculitis; Chilblains; Endothelial Disease; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19

Bibliography

  1. Fujioka K. “A link between endothelial dysfunction and SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with COVID-19”. CPQ Medicine4 (2021): 01-08.
  2. Hoffmann M., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor”. Cell (2020): 271-280.
  3. Corretti MC., et al. “Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: a report of the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology39 (2002): 257-265.
  4. Fujioka K., et al. “Correlation between vascular failure (endothelial dysfunction) and fibrosis markers”. Journal of Medical Ultrasonics 43 (2016): S458.
  5. Fujioka K. Association between endothelial dysfunction and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index in patient without hepatic-related disease”. Angiology Open Access (2021).
  6. Fujioka K., et al. “Increased nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation in migraineurs without aura in the interictal period”. Journal of Medical Ultrasonics 45 (2018): 605-610.
  7. Fujioka K. “Reply to: Endothelium-dependent and –independent functions in migraineurs”. Journal of Medical Ultrasonics 46 (2019): 169-170.
  8. Fujioka K., et al. “Association of brachial artery measures with estimated GFR>60mL/min/1.73m2. in a cross-sectional study of the community-based women”. Angiology Open Access (2019) 7:231
  9. Fujioka K. “Propensity to the vascular smooth muscle cell abnormality in migraine without aura and vasospastic angina along with a genome-wide association studies”. Journal of Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis (2019): 10.334.
  10. Fujioka K., et al. “Interrelationship among lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation in the community-based setting of Japanese women”. Angiology Open Access 7 (2019): 235.
  11. Fujioka K. “Effect on microRNA-92a in atherosclerosis along with flow-mediated vasodilation study”. Journal of Clinical Oncology1 (2020): 000153.
  12. Fujioka K. “A novel biomarker microRNA 92a-3p as a link between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease”. Journal of Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis2 (2020): 1000345.
  13. Fujioka K. “Association between chronic liver disease and atherosclerosis: an inflammation as common pathway”. Journal of Clinical Trials1 (2021): 444.
  14. Fujioka K. “NAFLD/NASH-related hepatocellular carcinoma: along with the role of genetics”. Journal of Clinical Oncology2 (2020): 000165.
  15. Libby P., et al. “COVID-19 is, in the end, an endothelial disease”. European Heart Journal 41 (2020): 3038-3044.
  16. Iba T., et al. “The coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and vasculitis of COVID-19”. Inflammation Research 69 (2020): 1181-1189.
  17. Larenas-Linnenmann D., et al. “Cutaneous manifestation s related to COVID-19 immune dysregulation in the pediatric age group”. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports2 (2021): 13.
  18. Recalcati S., et al. “Cutaneous manifestation in COVID-19: a first perspective”. JEADV5 (2020): e212-e213.
  19. Recalcati S., et al. “Acral cutaneous lesions in the time of COVID-19”. JEADV (2020): e346-le347.
  20. Cappel MA., et al. “Permio (chiblains), SARS-CoV2, and COVID toes unified through cutaneous and systemic mechanisms”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings4 (2021): 1-17.
  21. Carson JA. “The histological assessment of cutaneous vasculitis”. Histopathology 56 (2010): 3-23.
  22. Gianotti R., et al. “Cutaneous clinico-pathological findings in three COVID-19-positive patients observed in the Metropolitan area of Milan, Italy”. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 8 (2020).
  23. Verdoni L., et al. ”An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: an observational cohort study”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1771-1778
  24. Roncati L., et al. “Type 3 hypersensitivity in COVID-19 vasculitis”. Clinical Immunology (2020): 108487.
  25. Maiuolo J., et al. “The contribution of endothelial dysfunction in systemic injury subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 infection”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23 (2020): 9309.
  26. Becker RC. “COVID-19-associated vasculitis and vasculopathy”. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis (2020): 499-511.
  27. Kanitakis J., et al. “Chilblain-like acral lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic (COVID toes): histologic, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 3 (2020): 870-875.
  28. Hachem MEI., et al. “A clinical, histopathological and laboratory study of 19 consecutive Italian paediatric patients with chilblain-like lesions: lights and shadows on the relationship with COVID-19 infection”. JEADV (2020): 2620-2629.
  29. Colmenero I., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 endothelial infection causes COVID-19 chilblains: histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrstructual study of seven paediatric cases”. British Journal of Dermatology 183 (2020): 729-737.
  30. Varga Z., et al. “Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1417-1418.

Copyright: © 2021 Kazumi Fujioka. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US