Morozov IA* and Tkachenko PE2
1Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immuneand-
biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
2Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Morozov IA, Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-biological Products of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
Received: August 11, 2020; Published: September 17, 2020
The article describes the mechanism and principle of the use of membrane vesicles in the implementation of the main functions of
these organs: secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, absorption of nutrients in the small intestine and liquid at concentration
bile by epithelial cells of the gallbladder. Evidence is given of the intracellular formation of hydrochloric acid in the tubulovesicles of
parietal cells and the turnover of its secretory membranes during the secretory cycle, which ensures their multiple use and explaining
the extraordinary lifespan of these unique cells. On this basis, a reliable mechanism of inhibition of HCl secretion by H+ -K + -ATPase
blockers are described. The article discusses in detail the endocytic mechanism of absorption of ions and nutrients by enterocytes.
The mechanism of participation of the apical contractile complex of brush borders of epithelial cells in the initiation of endocytosis
and cytoplasmic microtubules in the transport of membrane vesicles through the cytoplasm is analysed in detail.
Based on our own research and numerous works in the world scientific literature, it was concluded that there are two energydependent modes of transport in the absorptive epithelium of the digestive organs - transmembrane (ionic and nutritional) homeostasis, carried out by the ATPase system of the basal plasmalemma, and vesicular (endocytic), implemented by the apical complex edges and microtubules of the cytoplasm. Both modes of transport are interconnected and are under constant cellular control. It is concluded that this is directly related to the majority of cells, including those that secrete various substances: hydrochloric acid by parietal cells, enzymes by the main cells of the stomach glands and exocrinocytes of the pancreas, hormones by endocrine cells of the APUD system and, finally, mediators by nerve cells...
To clarify the problem of cell transport, it is proposed to distinguish between two types of them: homeostatic and functional. The first is carried out mainly in relation to ions on the basolateral membrane with the help of its ATPase systems and provides intracellular homeostasis and nutritional co - transport, while the second (functional) determines the performance of the main specific function with the help of membrane vesicles.
Keywords: Cell Transport; Endocytosis; Membrane Vesicles; Functional and Homeostatic Transport
Citation: Morozov IA and Tkachenko PE. “Membrane Vesicle - A Universal Mechanism Functional Transport in the Digestive System".Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 4.10 (2020): 36-49.
Copyright: © 2020 Morozov IA and Tkachenko PE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.