Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 9

An Assessment of Phytochemical, Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Properties of Berberis Aristata and Tinospora Sinensis of Nepal

Amin Maharjan, Ruby Maharjan and Sabita Tamang*

Department of Biotechnology, Kantipur Valley College Kumaripati, Lalitpur, Affiliated to Purbanchal University, Nepal

*Corresponding Author: Sabita Tamang, Department of Biotechnology, Kantipur Valley College Kumaripati, Lalitpur, Affiliated to Purbanchal University, Nepal.

Received: July 24, 2023; Published: August 30, 2023

Abstract

The majority of Nepalese people are dependent on indigenous use of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants play vital role in Nepalese livelihood, health and socio-economic prospects. Very few systematic studies have been done on the medicinal plants of Nepal for their anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities. Thus, in the present study, we collected and screened the Nepalese medicinal plants from different ecological region of Nepal for the anti-oxidant activity leading to the isolation of active compounds.

Our research is focused on collecting medicinally important plant “Tinospora sinensis” and “Berberis aristata” and conducting their phytochemical analysis, anti-microbial assay and antioxidant assay. The plant samples of T. sinensis and B. aristata were collected from an altitude of 1161m and 1666m respectively from the hills of Dhunibesi-7, Dhading. The crude methanolic extracts of these plant species were prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method and concentrated by rotary vacuum evaporation method. Then these extracts were further subjected to get more concentrated in water bath. Then, the plant extracts were subjected to  preliminary  phytochemical analysis for the detection of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannin, flavonoid, saponins, sterol, fatty acid and fixed oil, resins, protein and amino acid.

Likewise, the anti-microbial assay of the plant extracts were tested by Agar-disc diffusion method with Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gramnegative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter). Furthermore, the anti-oxidant assay of the plant extracts were conducted by DPPH assay using ascorbic acid as reference. The IC50 were also evaluated and compared. The proximate value analysis of the plant extracts were also carried out.

The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of the medicinal plants (Tinospora sinensis and Berberis aristata) indicated the presence of major phytochemical compounds, including alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannin, flavonoid, saponins, resins, protein and amino acid which may be responsible for the observed anti-microbial activities and anti-oxidant activities. The observed results further support the view that these Nepalese medicinal plants are promising sources of potential anti-oxidants and medicinal compounds.

All the plant extracts have shown anti-microbial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter). The highest zone of inhibition was shown by Berberis aristata leaves collected against Bacillus subtilis with the diameter being 1.6cm. The leaf extract of Berberis aristata showed better anti-microbial activities than other plant extracts.

The strongest anti-oxidant activity was shown by methanolic extract of stem of Berberis aristata with IC50 value of 82.101μg/ml whereas the lowest anti-oxidant activity was shown by methanolic extract of leaves of Tinospora sinensis with IC50 value of 128.53μg/ml. Among all the plant extracts, the Berberis aristata stem extract and the Tinospora sinensis leaves extract showed higher anti-oxidant activity.

 Keywords: Anti-Microbial; Antioxidant; Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis; Ic50; Zone Of Inhibition

References

  1. Bhattarai KR., et al. “Medicinal Plant Knowledge of the Panchase Region in the Middle Hills of the Nepalese Himalayas”. Banko Janakari2 (2013): 31-39.
  2. Kunwar Ripu M., et al. “Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine24 (2013).
  3. Uprety Yadav., et al. “Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine3 (2010).
  4. Sapkota Shova., et al. “Diversity of Flowering Plants in Nubri Valley, Manaslu Conservation Area, Central Nepal”. American Journal of Plant Sciences, Scientific Research Publishing (2017).
  5. Sheng-Ji P. “Ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicine studies: some experiences from Asia”. Pharmaceutical Biology1 (2001): 74-79.
  6. Tiwari S., et al. “In: Proceeding of local experience-based national strategy for organic production and management of MAPs/NTFPs in Nepal.
  7. Pyakurel Dipesh., et al. “Trade and Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Western Nepal”. Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science (2018): 27-37.
  8. Singh MP., et al. “Medicinal plants of Nepal – retrospects and prospects”. Economic Botany 33 (1979): 185-198.
  9. Olsen CS and Larsen HO. “Alpine medicinal plant trade and Himalayan mountain livelihood strategies”. The Geographical Journal 169 (2003): 243–254.
  10. Kunwar RM., et al. “Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in far-west Nepal”. Journal of Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7 (2009): 5-28.
  11. Kaur R., et al. “Medicinal plants for the treatment of sexual transmitted diseases”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovations 2 (2012): 13-23.
  12. Neeraja PV and Margaret E. “Amruthavalli: Tinospora cordifolia: Multipurpose rejuvenator”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 3 (2013): 233-241.
  13. Sachet Hedge and M Jayaraj. “A Review of the Medicinal Properties, Phytochemical and Biological Active Compounds of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr”. Journal of Biologically Active Product from Nature (2016).
  14. Mitra R and Raghunandan K. “Anonymous, Pharmacognosy of Indigenous Drugs 1; (Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi)” (1982): 321.
  15. Sharma OP and Bhat TK. “DPPH antioxidant assay revisited”. Food Chemistry 4 (2009): 1202-1205.
  16. Neeraja PV and Margaret E. “Amruthavalli: Tinospora cordifolia: Multipurpose rejuvenator”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 3 (2013): 233-241.
  17. Mazumder Papiya Mitra., et al. “Phytopharmacology of Berberis aristata dc: a review”. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics2 (2011): 46-50.
  18. Saied S., et al. “Phytochemical studies of Berberis aristata”. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3 (2007): 1-3.
  19. Parmar C and Kaushal MK. “Berberis aristata: Wild fruits. Kalyani Publishing Ludhiana (1982): 10-14.
  20. Saied S., et al. “Phytochemical studies of Berberis aristata”. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3 (2007):1-3.
  21. Blasko G., et al. “Taxilamine, a pseudobenzylisoquinoline alkaloid”. Heterocycles 19 (1982): 257-259.
  22. Chakravarti KK., et al. “Alkaloidal constituents of the bark of Berberis aristata”. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 7 (1950): 161-164.
  23. Katiyar D., et al. “Isolation and characterization of ndocosane from heartwood of Berberis aristata”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2 (2011): 331-335.
  24. Ambastha SP. “The Wealth of India. Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi, CSIR 2 (1988): 118.
  25. Das K., et al. “Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research2 (2010): 104-111.
  26. Das K., et al. “Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research2 (2010): 104-111.
  27. Nikhal SB., et al. “Hydroalcoholic extraction of Mangifera indica (leaves) by Soxhletion”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences1 (2010): 30-32.
  28. Ncube NS., et al. “Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends”. African Journal of Biotechnology12 (2008): 1797-1806.
  29. Rengganaten V. “In-vitro Screening of Cytotoxic Effect and Antioxidant Activity of Pereskia bleo and Centella asiatica Crude Extracts, Department of Biochemical Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman (2013).
  30. Handa SS., et al. “Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants”. International Centre for Science and High Technology, Trieste (2008): 21-25.
  31. Abdul Wadood., et al. “Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Occurring in Local Area of Mardan”. Department of Biochemistry, Pakistan (2013).
  32. Manjulika Yadav., et al. “Preliminary phytochemical screening of Six Medicinal Plants Used In Traditional Medicine". University of Arahabad (2014).
  33. Handa SS., et al. “Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants”. International Centre for Science and High Technology, Trieste (2008): 21-25.
  34. Enne VI., et al. “Persistence of sulphonamide resistance in Escherichia coli in the UK despite national prescribing restriction”. The Lancet 28 (2001): 13251328.
  35. Alagesaboopathi C. “Antimicrobial Potential And Phytochemical Screening Of Andrographis Affinis Nees An Endemic Medicinal Plant From India”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 (2011): 157-159.
  36. Ahmad I and Beg AZ. “Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multiple drug resistant human pathogens”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74 (2001): 113-123.
  37. Verzelloni E., et al. “Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and the flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar”. Food Chemistry2 (2007): 564-571.
  38. Sharma OP and Bhat TK. “DPPH antioxidant assay revisited”. Food Chemistry4 (2009): 1202-1205.
  39. Mustafa RA., et al. “Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants”. Journal of Food Science1 (2010): C28-C35.
  40. Burits M and Bucar F. “Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil”. Phytotherapy Research 5 (2000): 323-328.
  41. Szabo MR., et al. “Improved DPPH determination for antioxidant activity spectrophotometric assay”. Chemical Papers3 (2007): 214-216.
  42. Shukla Abha., et al. “Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves”. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences5 (2015): 640-644.

Citation

Citation: Sabita Tamang., et al. “An Assessment of Phytochemical, Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Properties of Berberis Aristata and Tinospora Sinensis of Nepal". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.9 (2023): 93-122.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Sabita Tamang., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US