Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 9

Cardiopulmonary Metabolic Syndrome and Long COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn1, Attapon Cheepsattayakorn2,3* and Porntep Siriwanarangsun3

1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

210th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand

3Faculty of Medicine, Western University, Pathumtani Province, Thailand

*Corresponding Author: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, 10th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Received: July 25, 2022; Published: August 23, 2022

Abstract

A comprehensive search was carried out in mainstream bibliographic databases or Medical Subject Headings, including ScienDirect, PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science. The search was applied to the articles that were published between January 1999 and July 2022. With strict literature search and screening processes, it yielded 30 articles from 91 articles of initial literature database.

Several previous studies hypothetically reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and obesity in persons older than 60 years were significantly rising. The effects of changes on the immune status and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes are still questionable, whereas several previous studies demonstrated trigger higher stress conditions of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) contributing to hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes.

Despite the increased risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction in early COVID-19 phase or in long COVID-19 phase after diabetes, diabetes alone is not related to an increased risk of respiratory infection, including COVID-19. Diabetes, diabetic traits, and diabetic blood proteins may have the most causal effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) expression, particularly, in the lung, thus, diabetes can trigger the risk of COVID-19 infection and increase chance of worst outcome in the long COVID-19 phase, and finally, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus will have poor prognosis during long COVID-19 phase.

In conclusion, dyslipidemia, high serum levels of cholesterol, low serum levels of HDL, hypertension, and obesity with high expression of ACE 2 in adipose tissue, an epidemic of the last century in conjunction with COVID-19 pandemic, particularly, in the over-60-year-old population are the cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic events that could contribute to the COVID-19 disease worsening both in the early and long COVID-19 phases. Treatment type of cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic diseases or disorders did not impact the COVID-19 status, but non-treatment of these diseases or disorders could importantly increase COVID-19 incidence. Monitoring of the cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic risk factors is urgently needed.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cardiopulmonary; Cardiometabolic; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Human Health; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertension; Impact; Metabolic; Obesity; Pulmonary; SARS-CoV-2; Statins

References

  1. Gaziano TA., et al. “Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south Africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa; longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study”. BMC Public Health1 (2017): 206.
  2. Hussain A., et al. “COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice (2020): 108142.
  3. Wang A., et al. “Timely blood glucose management for the outbreak novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is urgently needed”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2020 (2019): 162.
  4. van der Stoep M., et al. “High-density lipoprotein as a modulator of platelet and coagulation responses”. Cardiovascular Research3 (2014): 362-371.
  5. Sommerstein R., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers have a biphasic effects?” Journal of the American Heart Association 7 (2020): e016509.
  6. Ritter A., et al. “Obesity and COVID-19: molecular mechanisms linking both pandemics”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16 (2020): 5793.
  7. Yang X., et al. “Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study”. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020).
  8. Shah P., et al. “Real world data on cardiometabolic diseases in U.S. adults during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: a decentralized registry study”. Cardiovascular Diabetology 21 (2022): 24.
  9. Guan W-J., et al. “Comorbidity and its impact on 1,590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis”. European Respiratory Journal5 (2020): 2000547.
  10. Zekavat S., et al. “Influence of blood pressure on pneumonia risk.: epidemiological association and Mendelian randomization in the UK Biobank” (2020).
  11. Hariyanto TI and Kurniawan A. “Dyslipidemia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome 5 (2020): 1463-1465.
  12. Schmidt NM., et al. “Cholesterol-modifying drugs in COVID-19”. Oxford Open Immunology1 (2020): iqaa001.
  13. Gowdy KM and Fessler MB. “Emerging roles for cholesterol and lipoproteins in lung disease”. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 4 (2013): 430-437.
  14. Tall AR and Yvan-Charvet L. “Cholesterol, inflammation and innate immunity”. Nature Reviews Immunology 2 (2015): 104-116.
  15. Park HS., et al. “Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-alpha, and IL-6”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1 (2015): 29-35.
  16. Vieira-Potter VJ. “Inflammation and macrophage modulation in adipose tissues”. Cell Microbiology10 (2014): 1484-1492.
  17. Yiu HH., et al. “Dynamics of a cytokine storm”. PLoS ONE10 (2012): e45027.
  18. Alexeeff SE., et al. “Statin use reduces decline in lung function: VA Normative Aging Study”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 176 (2007): 742-747.
  19. Keddissi JI., et al. “The use of statins and lung function in current and former smokers”. Chest 132 (2007): 1764-1771.
  20. Blamoun AI., et al. “Statins may reduce episodes of exacerbation and the requirement for intubation in patients with COPD: evidence from a retrospective cohort study”. International Journal of Clinical Practice 62 (2008): 1373-1378.
  21. Frost FJ., et al. “Influenza and COPD mortality protection as pleiotropic, dose-dependent effects of statins”. Chest 131 (2007): 1006-1012.
  22. Ishida W., et al. “Decrease in mortality rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with statin use: a population-based analysis in Japan”. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 212 (2007): 265-273.
  23. Mancini GB., et al. “Reduction of morbidity and mortality by statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 47 (2006): 2554-2560.
  24. Soyseth V., et al. “Statin use is associated with reduced mortality in COPD”. European Respiratory Journal 29 (2007): 279-283.
  25. Cowan DC., et al. “Simvastatin in the treatment of asthma: lack of steroid-sparing effect”. Thorax 65 (2010): 891-896.
  26. Hothersall EJ., et al. “Effects of atorvastatin added to inhaled corticosteroids on lung function and sputum cell counts in atopic asthma”. Thorax 63 (2008): 1070-1075.
  27. Huang CC., et al. “Statin use in patients with asthma: a nationwide population-based study”. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 41 (2011): 507-512.
  28. Maneechotesuwan K., et al. “Statins enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients through increased induction of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 126 (2010): 754-762. e1.
  29. Menzies D., et al. “Simvastatin does not exhibit therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in asthma”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 119 (2007): 328-335.
  30. Ostroukhova M., et al. “The effect of statin therapy on allergic patients with asthma”. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 103 (2009): 463-468.
  31. Braganza G., et al. “Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma--a randomized controlled trial”. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 11 (2011): 16.
  32. Kor DJ., et al. “Statin administration did not influence the progression of lung injury or associated organ failures in a cohort of patients with acute lung injury”. Intensive Care Medicine 35 (2009): 1039-1046.
  33. Craig TR., et al. “A randomized clinical trial of hydroxymethylglutaryl- coenzyme a reductase inhibition for acute lung injury (The HARP Study)”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 183 (2011): 620-626.
  34. Nadrous HF., et al. “Impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis”. Chest 126 (2004): 438-446.
  35. Kao PN. “Simvastatin treatment of pulmonary hypertension: an observational case series”. Chest 127 (2005): 1446-1452.
  36. Lee TM., et al. “Effects of pravastatin on functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension”. Clinical Science (Lond) 116 (2009): 497-505.
  37. Gordon DJ and Rifkind BM. “High-density lipoprotein-the clinical implications of recent studies”. The New England Journal of Medicine19 (1989): 1311-1316.
  38. Pencina MJ., et al. “Predicting the thirty-year risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study”. Circulation24 (2009): 3078.
  39. Kopin L and Lowenstein CJ. “Dyslipidemia”. Annals of Internal Medicine11 (2017): ITC81-ITC96.
  40. Guan W-J., et al. “Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China”. The New England Journal of Medicine 18 (20320): 1708-1720.
  41. Fadini G., et al. “Prevalence and impact of diabetes among people infected with SARS-CoV-2”. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 6 (2020): 867-869.
  42. Rao S., et al. “Exploring diseases/traits and blood proteins causally related to expression of ACE 2, the putative receptor of SARS-CoV-2: a Mendelian randomization analysis highlights tentative relevance of diabetes-related traits”. Diabetes Care7 (2020): 1416-1426.
  43. Chen J., et al. “The impact of COVID-19 on blood glucose: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 11 (2020): 574541.
  44. Hales CM., et al. “Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among adults: United States, 2017-2018”. NCHS Data Brief 360 (2020): 1-8.
  45. Ng M., et al. “Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013”. Lancet 9945 (2014): 766-781.
  46. Fischer-Pososovszky P and Möller P. “Das Fettgewebe im Fokus des Immunsystems: adipositasassoziierte Inflammation”. Pathologe3 (2020): 224-229.
  47. Yaghi S., et al. “Early elevated troponin levels after ischemic stroke suggests a cardiometabolic source”. Stroke1 (2018): 121-126.
  48. Fridman S., et al. “Stroke risk, phenotypes, and death in COVID-19: systematic review and newly reported cases”. Neurology 24 (2020): e3373-e3385.
  49. Bansal M. “Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 3 (2020): 247-250.
  50. Du F., et al. COVID-19: the role of excessive cytokine release and potential ACE 2 down-regulation in promoting hypercoagulable state associated with severe illness”. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis2 (2021): 313-329.

Citation

Citation: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. “Cardiopulmonary Metabolic Syndrome and Long COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.9 (2022): 127-134.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US