Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 9

Cardiopulmonary Metabolic Syndrome and Long COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn1, Attapon Cheepsattayakorn2,3* and Porntep Siriwanarangsun3

1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

210th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand

3Faculty of Medicine, Western University, Pathumtani Province, Thailand

*Corresponding Author: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, 10th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Received: July 25, 2022; Published: August 23, 2022


A comprehensive search was carried out in mainstream bibliographic databases or Medical Subject Headings, including ScienDirect, PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science. The search was applied to the articles that were published between January 1999 and July 2022. With strict literature search and screening processes, it yielded 30 articles from 91 articles of initial literature database.

Several previous studies hypothetically reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and obesity in persons older than 60 years were significantly rising. The effects of changes on the immune status and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes are still questionable, whereas several previous studies demonstrated trigger higher stress conditions of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) contributing to hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes.

Despite the increased risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction in early COVID-19 phase or in long COVID-19 phase after diabetes, diabetes alone is not related to an increased risk of respiratory infection, including COVID-19. Diabetes, diabetic traits, and diabetic blood proteins may have the most causal effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) expression, particularly, in the lung, thus, diabetes can trigger the risk of COVID-19 infection and increase chance of worst outcome in the long COVID-19 phase, and finally, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus will have poor prognosis during long COVID-19 phase.

In conclusion, dyslipidemia, high serum levels of cholesterol, low serum levels of HDL, hypertension, and obesity with high expression of ACE 2 in adipose tissue, an epidemic of the last century in conjunction with COVID-19 pandemic, particularly, in the over-60-year-old population are the cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic events that could contribute to the COVID-19 disease worsening both in the early and long COVID-19 phases. Treatment type of cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic diseases or disorders did not impact the COVID-19 status, but non-treatment of these diseases or disorders could importantly increase COVID-19 incidence. Monitoring of the cardiopulmonary metabolic or cardiometabolic risk factors is urgently needed.

Keywords: COVID-19; Cardiopulmonary; Cardiometabolic; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Human Health; Hypercholesterolemia; Hypertension; Impact; Metabolic; Obesity; Pulmonary; SARS-CoV-2; Statins


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Citation: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. “Cardiopulmonary Metabolic Syndrome and Long COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.9 (2022): 127-134.


Copyright: © 2022 Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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