Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 9

Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in Water Bodies and Drinking Water Supplies in and Around Bareilly, India

Bhoj R Singh*, Ravichandran Karthikeyan, Dharmendra K Sinha, Vinodhkumar OR, Varsha Jaykumar, Akanksha Yadav and Himani Agri

Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

*Corresponding Author: Bhoj R Singh, Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

Received: August 01, 2022; Published: August 22, 2022


The study was conducted to evaluate the microbial quality of water supplies in Bareilly city and nearby villages. A total of 111 samples comprising community pond water (45), drinking water (36), water tap handle swabs (city, 23) and sewage water (7, city) were analysed. Total of 363 bacterial isolates belonging to 25 genera were identified of which 71.3%, 47.7% and 30% isolates had multiple drug resistance, carbapenem resistance and produced extended spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), respectively. Twenty of the 36 drinking water samples had coliforms and 33.3% were positive for Escherichia coli. Besides, 55 samples had ESKAPE bacteria, 43.24% were positive for carbapenem resistant bacteria (CRB) and 24.3% samples had carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). In drinking water samples 8.3 % had CRE and 33.3% had CRB. Two third (65.2%) of water faucet (tap) handles in public places had CRBs mostly belonging to ESKAPE group of pathogens, and 52.2% carried CRE. The community pond water was still the bigger health hazard since 64.4% and 44.4% of samples were positive for CRB and CRE, respectively. The study indicated that community water sources either for drinking or for other purposes in and around Bareilly city were potential source of MDR, CR and ESBL producing strains.

Keywords: AMR; CRE; Carbapenem-resistance; Community Water; ESBL; MDR


    1.       WHO. “Health, environment, and sustainable development”. World Health Organization (2019).

    2.       Kumar C. “13K die due to contaminated water in 4 yrs”. Times of India (2014).

    3.       Tripathi B. “Diarrhoea Took more lives than any other water-borne disease in India” (2018).

    1. “Guidelines for drinking-water quality”. 4th edn incorporating the first addendum, World Health Organization Geneva (2017).
    2. Bartram J., et al. “Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety: the significance of HPCs for water quality and human health”. WHO Emerging Issues in Water and Infectious Disease Series. London, IWA Publishing (2003).
    3. “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water”. 14th edn, American Public Health Association/American water Works and Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA (2012).
    4. Carter GR. “Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Microbiology”. 2nd edn, Charles C Thomas Publishers: Springfield (1975).
    5. Singh BR. “Labtop for Microbiology Laboratory”. Lambert Academic Publishing: Germany (2009).
    6. Kreig NR and Holt JG. “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology”.Williams and Wilkins; Balitimore (1984).
    7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. “Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria”. M45, 3rd Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, USA (2015).
    8. Singh BR., et al. “Antimicrobial Activity of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Oil Against Microbes of Environmental, Clinical and Food Origin”. International Research Journal of Pharmacy Pharmacology 1 (2011): 228-236.
    9. Poonia S., et al. “Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim”. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 39 (2014): 156-160.
    10. Dhawde R., et al. “Antibiotic resistance characterization of environmental  coliisolated from River Mula-Mutha, Pune district, India”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 1247.
    11. Baquero F., et al. “Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments”. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 19 (2008): 260-265.
    12. Bhoj R Singh., et al. “Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Culturome of Heart Blood Samples of Big Cats Died in Zoos and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Northern India". Acta Scientific Microbiology8 (2022): 104-115.
    13. Bhoj R Singh., et al. “Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Aborted Foetuses of Lions (Panthera leo) and Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris)". Acta Scientific Microbiology8 (2022): 116-123.
    14. Flores G E., et al. “Microbial biogeography of public restroom surfaces”. PLoS One 6 (2011): e28132.
    15. Griffith CJ., et al. “Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing”. American Journal of Infection Control31 (2003): 93-96.
    16. Kotay S., et al. “Spread from the sink to the patient: in situ study using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli to model bacterial dispersion from hand-washing sink-trap reservoirs”. Applied Environmental Microbiology 83 (2017): e03327-16.
    17. Dumaru R., et al. “Study of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of Gram-negative bacilli among the clinical isolates at BPKIHS, Dharan”. BMC Research Notes 12 (2019):
    18. Mishra M., et al. “Multi-drug resistant coliform: water sanitary standards and health hazards”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (2019): 311.
    19. Walsh TR., et al. “Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study”. Lancet Infectious Diseases11 (2011): 355-362.
    20. Kumar D., et al. “Klebsiella in drinking water”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention 2 (2013): 38-42.
    21. Alice E., et al. “The hospital water environment as a reservoir for carbapenem-resistant organisms causing hospital-acquired infections—A systematic review of the literature”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 64 (2017): 1435-1444.
    22. Islam MS., et al. “Abundance of Aeromonas in various components of pond ecoysystems in Dhaka, Bangladesh”. International Journal of Environmental Studies39 (1999): 297-304.
    23. Gavriel AA., et al. “Incidence of mesophilic Aeromonas within a public drinking water supply in north-east Scotland”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84 (1998): 383-392.
    24. Miyagi K., et al. “Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan”. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 21 (2016): 287-294.
    25. Doern CD., et al. “Investigation of linezolid resistance in staphylococci and enterococci”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 54 (2016): 1289-1294.
    26. McLaughlin M., et al. “Virulence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium according to linezolid resistance and clinical outbreak status”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 57 (2013): 3923-3927.
    27. Mendes RE., et al. “Update of the telavancin activity in vitro tested against a worldwide collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates (2013), when applying the revised susceptibility testing method”. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 81 (2015): 275-279.
    28. Stein GE and Craig WA. “Tigecycline: A critical analysis”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 43 (2006): 518-524.
    29. Goli H R., et al. “Emergence of colistin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Tabriz hospitals, Iran”. Iranian Journal of Microbiology 8 (2016): 62-69.
    30. Cunha BA. “Acinetobacter”. Acinetobacter: Background, Pathophysiology, and Epidemiology. Medscape (2016).
    31. Howard A., et al. “Acinetobacter baumannii: an emerging opportunistic pathogen”. Virulence 3 (2012): 243-250.
    32. Bhardwaj M., et al. “Potential of herbal drug and antibiotic combination therapy: a new approach to treat multidrug resistant bacteria”. Pharmacetica Analytica Acta 7 (2016): 1-4.
    33. Vadhana P., et al. “Emergence of herbal antimicrobial drug resistance in clinical bacterial isolates”. Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta 6 (2015): 434-443.
    34. Rodríguez-Baño J., et al. “Treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-, AmpC-, and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2 (2018): e00079-17. 
    35. Tamma PD and Rodriguez-Bano J. “The use of noncarbapenem β-lactams for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase infections”. Clinical Infectious Diseases64 (2017): 972-980.
    36. Henriques IS., et al. “Prevalence and diversity of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in untreated drinking water in Portugal”. Microbial Drug Resistance 18 (2012): 29.
    37. Srinivasan R., et al. “Prevalence and characterization of carbapenemase producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from clinical and environmental samples: Efflux pump inhibitor study”. African Journal of Microbiology Research 9 (2015): 1200-1204.
    38. Singh R. “Who is responsible for emergence and spread of AMR? How to handle it?” In: Proceeding of 17th Convocation of National Academy of Veterinary Sciences, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India, 20th 2018 (2018).


    Citation: Bhoj R Singh., et al. “Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in Water Bodies and Drinking Water Supplies in and Around Bareilly, India". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.9 (2022): 113-126.


    Copyright: © 2022 Bhoj R Singh., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US