Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 8

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Culturome of Heart Blood Samples of Big Cats Died in Zoos and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Northern India

Bhoj R Singh1*, Mathesh Karikalan2, Abhijit M Pawde2, Ravichandran Karthikeyan1, Dharmendra K Sinha1 and Himani Agri1

1Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

2Centre for Wildlife, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

*Corresponding Author: Bhoj R Singh, Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

Received: June 23, 2022; Published: July 25, 2022

Abstract

In India, little is understood precisely about the cause of death in big cats in zoos, wild and wildlife sanctuaries. The present study reports the bacterial culturome (culturable bacteria) of heart blood of leopards (5), lions (9) and tigers (26) found dead in zoos (30) or wildlife sanctuaries (10). From the samples submitted to Clinical Epidemiological study 145 bacterial (46 Gram positive and 99 Gram negative) strains (the group of isolates with a separate identity) belonging to 44 species (19 of G+ve and 25 of G-ve bacteria) were identified. From 17 (12 tiger, 1 leopard, 4 lions) heart blood samples bacteria of the single species were isolated in pure culture indicating cases of septicemia. The most common isolation as single bacteria type was of E. coli (5), followed by isolation of Alcaligenes denitrificans (2), A. feacalis (2), and one each of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacillus cereus, Paenibacillus macerans, Enterobacter (Pantoea) agglomerans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. intermedius and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Multiple drug-resistance (MDR) was detected in 73.1% and isolates belonged to 134 resistotypes. There was no significant (p, >0.05) difference in occurrence of herbal antimicrobial resistance of strains isolated from different animal of different locality. Significantly high probability (p, ≤0.04) of MDR strains and strains resistant to citral, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol and imipenem was recorded in samples from animals died in wildlife sanctuaries than those died in zoos. Of the 40 carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates identified from 16 (40.0%) heart blood samples, 21 (all Gram positive) were negative for MBL and 19 CR strains producing MBL belonged to 8 species of G-ve bacteria. The MIC of imipenem for MBL producer CR isolates ranged between 2 to 32 µg mL-1 while for those not produced MBL MIC ranged from 1.5 to 256 µg mL-1, all the carbapenem susceptible isolates had imipenem MIC between 0.001 to 1.0 µg mL-1. The study concluded multiplicity of bacteria in heart blood of big cats died in zoo and wildlife sanctuaries. Presence of multiple bacterial types in 57.5% samples suggests need for aseptic and timely collection of blood samples to understand the true etiology of fatality among big cats. Detection of MDR, ESBL and CR bacteria from 25%, 37.5% and 40% samples is alarming because of chances of spreading of AMR in the environment from animals suffering from infections with MDR strains and died in wild.

Keywords: Lion; Tiger; Leopard; Carbapenem-resistance; Herbal Drug-resistance; Blood Culture; MDR

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Citation

Citation: Bhoj R Singh., et al. “Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Culturome of Heart Blood Samples of Big Cats Died in Zoos and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Northern India". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.8 (2022): 21-25.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Bhoj R Singh., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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