Laccase - The Wonder Enzyme for a Variety of Industries
Mohd Kafeel Ahamd Ansari1,2*, Oksana Lastochkina3, Muhammad Iqbal4, Abdullah Adil Ansari1, Tasneem Fatma2, Susana Rodriguez-Couto5 and Gary Owens6
1Cyanobacterial Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, Georgetown, South America
2Cyanobacterial Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi, India
3Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics - Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
4Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
5Department of Separation Science, School of Engineering Science, LUT University, Mikkeli, Finland
6Environmental Contaminants Group, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Australia
*Corresponding Author: Mohd Kafeel Ahamd Ansari, Cyanobacterial Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Guyana, Georgetown, South America.
Received: October 28, 2021 ; Published: November 23, 2021
Laccases constitute a family of copper-containing oxidase enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic compounds (particularly of phenolic and aromatic amines) and some inorganic ions, and simultaneously reduce oxygen to water. The laccase molecule is either a dimeric or tetrameric glycoprotein containing four copper atoms per monomer, which are distributed across three redox sites. It was discovered by Yoshida in 1883 in Rhus vernicifera (Japanese lacquer tree). Laccase molecules are of common occurrence in higher plants, some fungi, insects and bacteria. These are now considered as the industrial enzymes because of their wide substrate specificity. Besides discussing the production and activity of laccases in various organisms, this article examines their wider potential for diverse biotechnological applications (e.g. in biosensor technology, cosmetics, food improvement, wine and beer stabilization, medical diagnosis, pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, petrochemicals, paper and pulp industry) as well as their use in detoxification and bioremediation of synthetic dyes. Further, it elucidates the process of enzyme immobilization, as immobilized enzymes also have a variety of applications.
Keywords: Laccase Enzyme; Immobilized Laccase; Laccase Production; Laccase-based Oxidation; Oxidation Mechanisms; Laccase Applications
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