Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 11

Alteration in the Tegumental Enzymes of Hymenolepis diminuta by Senna spp

Suman Kundu1, Sudeshna Mandal2, Chandrani Mondal2 and Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem2*

1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, USA
2Parasitology Research laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, West Bengal, India

*Corresponding Author: Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem, Parasitology Research laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, West Bengal, India.

Received: October 04, 2021 ; Published: October 19, 2021



Leaf extracts from three species of Senna viz., S. alata, S. occidentalis, and S. alexandrina induced severe morphological alterations in the zoonotic cestode parasite Hymenolepis diminuta. The present study revealed the anthelmintic effects of these plant extracts on the major tegumental enzymes, acid phosphatase (AcPase), alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase), adenosine tri-phosphatase (ATPase) and 5’nucleotidase (5’- Nu) of H. diminuta. The effects have been established by making histochemical localization and biochemical quantification of the tegumental enzyme activities that form the basis of the present communication and would therefore add an in depth understanding to the prior findings. Reduction of enzyme level of more than 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of AlkPase, AcPase, ATPase and 5’- Nu respectively were observed in plant extract treated parasites compared to control. This study thus opens new insight of the anthelmintic potential of the three species of Senna and ensures more mechanistic throughput in terms of anthelmintic drug discovery.

Keywords: Parasites; Histochemical; Biochemical; Anthelmintic; Tegument



  1. Cumino AC., et al. "Echinococcus granulosus tegumental enzymes as in vitro markers of pharmacological damage: a biochemical and molecular approach”. Parasitology international4 (2012): 579-585.
  2. McManus DP. "Reflections on the biochemistry of Echinococcus: past, present and future”. Parasitology12 (2009): 1643-1652.
  3. Buchmann K. "Histochemical characteristics of Gyrodactylus derjavini parasitizing the fins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)”. Folia parasitologica4 (1998): 312-318.
  4. Fried B., et al. "Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase activity in Leucochloridiomorpha constantiae (Trematoda) cultivated on the chick chorioallantois”. The Journal of Parasitology4 (1985): 510-512.
  5. Huh S. "Activities of acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase are present in the tribocytic organ and the caecum of Fibricola seoulensis”. The Korean Journal of Parasitology2 (1993): 165-167.
  6. Marr J., et al. Molecular medical parasitology. Elsevier (2002).
  7. Roy B and Swargiary A. "Anthelmintic efficacy of ethanolic shoot extract of Alpinia nigra on tegumental enzymes of Fasciolopsis buski, a giant intestinal parasite”. Journal of Parasitic Diseases1-2 (2009): 48-53.
  8. Cesari IM., et al. "Properties of a series of tegumental membrane-bound phosphohydrolase activities of Schistosoma mansoni”. Biochemical Journal3 (1981): 467-473.
  9. Kundu S and Lyndem LM. "In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona”. Journal of Helminthology2 (2013): 154-159.
  10. Kundu S., et al. "Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta”. Parasitology Research3 (2012): 1187-1192.
  11. Kundu S., et al. "Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine4 (2014): S436-S441.
  12. Kundu S., et al. "In vitro anthelmintic effects of Senna occidentalis (L.) link (Leguminosae) on rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Sci6 (2015): 268-271.
  13. Kundu S., et al. "Senna alexandrina induced ultrastructural changes on Hymenolepis diminuta”. Journal of Parasitic Diseases41.1 (2017): 147-154.
  14. Pearse AG. "Histochemistry, theoretical and applied”. (1953). Little brown and Company, Boston.
  15. Wachstein M and Meisel E. "Histochemistry of hepatic phosphatases at a physiologic pH: With special reference to the demonstration of bile canaliculi”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology1 (1957): 13-23.
  16. Plummer DT. Introduction to practical biochemistry. Tata McGraw-Hill Education (2006).
  17. Pal P and Tandon V”. Anthelmintic efficacy of Flemingia vestita (Leguminoceae): Genistein-induced alterations in the activity of tegumental enzymes in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida”. Parasitology International3 (1998): 233-243.
  18. Fiske Cyrus H and Yellapragada Subbarow. "The colorimetric determination of phosphorus”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2 (1925): 375-400.
  19. Buniatian HC. "Deamination of nucleotides and the role of their deamino forms in ammonia formation from amino acids”. Metabolic Reactions in the Nervous System. Springer, Boston, MA (1970): 399-413.
  20. Lowry OH., et al. "Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry1 (1951): 265-275.
  21. Pappas PW. "Activation and inhibition of the brush-border membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase activity of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) by divalent cations”. Parasitology1 (1991): 141-145.
  22. Hart RJ., et al. "A biochemical and ultrastructural study of the mode of action of bunamidine against Hymenolepis nana”. International Journal for Parasitology2 (1977): 129-134.
  23. Mehlhorn HBPHJ., et al. "In vivo and in vitro experiments on the effects of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni. A light and electron microscopic study”. Arzneimittel-forschung3a (1981): 544-554.
  24. Lalchhandama K., et al. "Effects of Millettia pachycarpa on the trace metals and tegumental enzymes of Raillietina echinobothrida”. Pharmacognosy Magazine16 (2008): 254.
  25. Das B., et al. "Potentilla fulgens (Family Rosaceae), a medicinal plant of north-east India: a natural anthelmintic?” Journal of Parasitic Diseases 34 (2010): 83-88.
  26. Smyth JD and McManus DP. “The physiology and biochemistry of cestodes”. Cambridge university press (1989).
  27. Fonseca-Salamanca F., et al. "Nematocidal activity of nitazoxanide in laboratory models”. Parasitology Research4 (2003): 321-324.
  28. Delabre-Defayolle I., et al. "Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes: biochemical and ultrastructural investigations on the effect of isatin (2-3 indoline dione) in vivo”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy2 (1989): 237-245.


Citation: Suman Kundu, Sudeshna Mandal, Chandrani Mondal and Larisha Mawkhlieng Lyndem. “Alteration in the Tegumental Enzymes of Hymenolepis diminuta by Senna spp”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.11 (2021): 39-45.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US