Raymond Kolawole Oluwaseun*
Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Raymond Kolawole Oluwaseun, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Received: May 08, 2021 ; Published: August 07, 2021
This research work aimed at studying the antimicrobial activities of Tithonia diversifolia and its phytochemicals against eighteen (18) Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore forming bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The increase of bacterial resistance specifically leading to treatment failures is directly responsible for the current increase in morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infections. Resistance to β-lactams in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly (but not exclusively) caused by intrinsic and acquired β-lactamases. Two systems classify these enzymes, one based on the molecular structure and the other in their function. Tithonia diversifolia (Methanol and ethyl acetate extract) was then screened against 18 clinical samples from University College Hospital, Ibadan (UCH), Nigeria. The clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae were further reconfirmed and identified using Analytical Profile Index (API20E) before the determination of the antibacterial activity of the plant using the agar well diffusion. The study showed that ethyl acetate extracts of Tithonia diversifolia leaf showed little inhibitory effects against the tested organism compared to the methanol extract, which showed no observable inhibitory effect. This result further established the resistance of some of the species of Enterobacteriaceae (E. aerogenes and genus klebsiella).
However, due to the significant inactivity against the isolates by the methanol and ethyl acetate extract recorded even at higher concentrations, no further research was carried out on them. Therapeutic antibiotics (Rifampicin and Lincomycin) were used as control for the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Rifampicin against ten test isolates showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 37.5 mg/mL (UCH 15, UCH 19), 75 mg/mL (UCH 1, UCH 4, UCH 5, UCH 12, UCH 17, UCH 18) and 150 mg/mL (UCH 10, UCH 16). The Phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia displayed showed the presence of saponin, glycoside, tannin, steroid, phenol, flavonoid and anthraquinone.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; Tithonia diversifolia; Phytochemicals
Citation: Raymond Kolawole Oluwaseun. “Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Composition of Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) on Clinical Isolates of Enterobacter cloacae”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.9 (2021): 44-51.
Copyright: © 2021 Raymond Kolawole Oluwaseun. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.