Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Current and Prospective Therapeutic Regimens for SARS-CoV-2: Review on Modern Medicine and Alternate Therapies

Shalitha Sasi1, Sindhu Gopinathan Pillai1, Sapna Singh2, Ritu Singhal3, Lokender Kumar3, Imran H Khan4, Aarti Yadav5, Priyanka Bharadwaj5, Prabhakar M5, Sushil Mehta5 and Suresh Thakur5*

1Evidentic GmbH, Martin-Buber-Str. 10, Berlin, Germany
2Safety and Analytical Research Centre (SARC) LLP, Bhat, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
3National Reference Laboratory and Center of Excellence (TB) WHO, Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, Sri Aurobindo Marg Near Qutub Minar, Mehrauli, New Delhi, India
4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine University of California, Davis, CA, USA
5NextGen In-vitro Diagnostics Pvt Ltd., BSC BioNEST Bio-Incubator Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Cluster, Haryana, India

*Corresponding Author: Suresh Thakur, NextGen In-vitro Diagnostics Pvt Ltd., BSC BioNEST Bio-Incubator Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Cluster, Haryana, India.

Received: June 28, 2021 ; Published:


The SARS-CoV-2 virus, causative agent of the novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to spread across the globe with the number of confirmed cases crossing 181 million. Rising human causalities and economic losses due to pandemic calls for a rapid development of vaccines and therapeutics. Research institutes, pharmaceutical companies and governments around the world are focused on accelerating the drug and vaccine development to contain virus and prevent further damage [1]. Many existing broad-spectrum anti-viral and immune-modulatory drugs have been identified to treat disease and associated symptoms. However, their effectiveness is yet to be confirmed by randomized clinical trials. Besides, many countries are also looking into traditional medicines and herbal formulas as an adjunct therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, global race for anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is ongoing, with several candidates are in use and few others progressing to phase 2/3 clinical trials. Here we discuss various promising therapeutic strategies and drugs in-use and under development for treatment and management of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARA-CoV-2; Vaccine; Anti-viral; Alternate Medicine


  1. Berber E., et al. “Could targeting immunometabolism be a way to control the burden of COVID-19 infection?” Microbes and Infection2 (2021): 104780.
  2. “Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)” (2020).
  3. “Coronavirus Cases by Country” (2021).
  4. Lu R., et al. “Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding”. Lancet 10224 (2020): 565-574.
  5. Shereen MA., et al. “COVID-19 infection: Emergence, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses”. Journal of Advanced Research 24 (2020): 91-98.
  6. Esakandari H., et al. “A comprehensive review of COVID-19 characteristics”. Biological Procedures Online 22 (2020): 19.
  7. Shah VK., et al. “Overview of Immune Response During SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lessons From the Past”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020): 1949.
  8. Sterlin D., et al. “IgA dominates the early neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2”. Science Translational Medicine577 (2021): eabd2223.
  9. Wheatley AK., et al. “Evolution of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mild-moderate COVID-19”. Nature Communications1 (2021): 1162.
  10. Herold T., et al. “Level of IL-6 predicts respiratory failure in hospitalized symptomatic COVID-19 patients”. medRxiv (2020): 2020.04.01.20047381.
  11. VanPatten S., et al. “Evidence supporting the use of peptides and peptidomimetics as potential SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) therapeutics”. Future Medicinal Chemistry18 (2020): 1647-1656.
  12. Saurabh S and Purohit SS. “A Modified ACE2 peptide mimic to block SARS-CoV2 entry”. bioRxiv (2020): 2020.05.07.082230.
  13. Chien M., et al. “Nucleotide Analogues as Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase, a Key Drug Target for COVID-19”. Journal of Proteome Research11 (2020): 4690-4697.
  14. Ardestani A and Azizi Z. “Targeting glucose metabolism for treatment of COVID-19”. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy 1 (2021): 112.
  15. Lokugamage KG., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive to type I interferon pretreatment”. bioRxiv (2020).
  16. Sallard E., et al. “Type 1 interferons as a potential treatment against COVID-19”. Antiviral Research 178 (2020): 104791.
  17. Zhou Q., et al. “Interferon-α2b Treatment for COVID-19”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020): 1061.
  18. Hung IF., et al. “Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial”. Lancet 10238 (2020): 1695-1704.
  19. Huang Q., et al. “Targeting inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19”. Pharmacological Research 159 (2020): 105051.
  20. Ledford H. “Coronavirus breakthrough: dexamethasone is first drug shown to save lives”. Nature7813 (2020): 469.
  21. Tang Y., et al. “Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: The Current Evidence and Treatment Strategies”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020): 1708.
  22. de Wilde AH., et al. “Cyclosporin A inhibits the replication of diverse coronaviruses”. Journal of General Virology 92 (2011): 2542-2548.
  23. Funk CD., et al. “A Snapshot of the Global Race for Vaccines Targeting SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 Pandemic”. Frontiers in Pharmacology937 (2020).
  24. Kruse RL. “Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China”. F1000Reserach 9 (2020): 72.
  25. Amanat F and Krammer F. “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Status Report”. Immunity 4 (2020): 583-589.
  26. Wang Q., et al. “Immunodominant SARS Coronavirus Epitopes in Humans Elicited both Enhancing and Neutralizing Effects on Infection in Non-human Primates”. ACS Infectious Diseases5 (2016): 361-376.
  27. COVID-19 vaccine development (2020).
  28. Sasso E., et al. “New viral vectors for infectious diseases and cancer”. Seminars in Immunology 50 (2020): 101430.
  29. van Doremalen N., et al. “ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques”. bioRxiv: The Preprint Server for Biology (2020): 2020.05.13.093195.
  30. “DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines” (2020).
  31. Mirzaie A., et al. “A narrative literature review on traditional medicine options for treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)”. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 40 (2020): 101214.
  32. Luo H., et al. “Reflections on treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine”. Chinese Medicine 151 (2020): 94.
  33. Xiong X., et al. “Chinese herbal medicine for coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Pharmacology Research 160 (2020): 105056.
  34. Gomathi M., et al. “Drug Studies on Rett Syndrome: From Bench to Bedside”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 8 (2020): 2740-2764.
  35. Golechha M. “Time to realise the true potential of Ayurveda against COVID-19”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 87 (2020): 130-131.
  36. Vimalanathan S., et al. “Medicinal plants of Tamil Nadu (Southern India) are a rich source of antiviral activities”. Pharmaceutical Biology5 (2009): 422-429.
  37. Heidary F., et al. “The Potential Use of Persian Herbal Medicines Against COVID-19 Through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2”. Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases 15 (2020): e102838.
  38. Ziai S., et al. “Inhibitory Effects of Germinal Angiotensin Converting Enzyme by Medicinal Plants Used”. Iranian Traditional Medicine as Antihypertensive 16 (2009): 134-143.
  39. Hemilä H., et al. “Vitamin C and acute respiratory infections”. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : The Official Journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 3 (1999): 756-761.
  40. Mercatelli D and Giorgi FM. “Geographic and Genomic Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Mutations”. Frontiers in Microbiology1800 (2020).
  41. Wibmer CK., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 escapes neutralization by South African COVID-19 donor plasma”. bioRxiv (2021): 2021.01.18.427166.
  42. Edara V-V., et al. “Infection and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.1 variant”. bioRxiv (2021): 2021.05.09.443299.
  43. Chatterjee B., et al. “The mortality due to COVID-19 in different nations is associated with the demographic character of nations and the prevalence of autoimmunity”. medRxiv (2020): 2020.07.31.20165696.
  44. Tiwari BK and Khosa R. “Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Sphaeranthus indicus against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research2 (2009): 26-30.
  45. Keyaerts E., et al. “In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications1 (2004): 264-268.
  46. Hussain F., et al. “Identification of Hypotensive Biofunctional Compounds of <i>Coriandrum sativum</i> and Evaluation of Their Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibition Potential”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2018 (2018): 4643736.


Citation: Suresh Thakur., et al. “Current and Prospective Therapeutic Regimens for SARS-CoV-2: Review on Modern Medicine and Alternate Therapies”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.8 (2021): 134-150.


Copyright: © 2021 Suresh Thakur., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US