Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Short Communication Volume 4 Issue 8

An Update on the Management of Toxoplasmosis with Relation to Pregnancy with Current Advances

Kulvinder Kochar Kaur*

Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India

*Corresponding Author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.

Received: June 28, 2021 ; Published: July 21, 2021

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease that occurs secondary to infection by the Apicomplexa protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, having the capacity to infect all warm blooded animals [1]. It is a disease prevalent all over the world with Prevalence of 40%-which goes as high as 70% in Mexico based on region [2,3]. Earlier we had reviewed the impact of TORCH testing and management of pregnancy with toxoplasmosis [4]. It has the ability of inducing abortion, encephalitis, with being a major opportunistic threat in patients infected with HIV [5]. 2 phases of human Toxoplasmosis exist, namely acute as well as chronic. During acute phase, the parasite spreads in the tachyzoite stage, that is markedly invasive as well as motile asexual form. At this particular stage, the parasite has the capacity to cross across any kind of biological barrier that are placenta and blood brain barrier (BBB) [6]. The motility of the parasite is based on the actomyosin machinery present below the plasma membrane kaglideosome [7]. Toxoplasma possesses 3 particular secretory organelles with specific proteins, that get liberated in a regulated as well as particular manner in the form of parasite biological requirements: the micronemes (MIC proteins), rhoptries (ROP proteins) along with dense granules (GRA proteins) [8].

References

  1. Weiss LM and Dubey JP. “Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations”. International Journal for Parasitology 39 (2009): 895-901.
  2. Elmore SA., et al. “Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline Clinical aspects and prevention”. Trends Parasitology 26 (2010): 190-196.
  3. Callabero Ortega H., et al. “Sero Prevalence and national distribution of human Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: Analisis of the 200 and 2006 National Health Surveys”. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 106 (2012): 653-659.
  4. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Role of routine TORCH testing with emphasis on Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy”. (2014).
  5. Safarpour H., et al. “Global status of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated factors in people living with HIV”. AIDS 34 (2020): 469-474.
  6. Gomez-Chavez F., et al. “Maternal immune response during pregnancy and vertical transmission in human Toxoplasmosis”. Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019): 285.
  7. Frenal K., et al. “Gliding motility powers invasion and egress in Apicomplexa”. Nature Review on Microbiology 15 (2017): 645-660.
  8. Carruthers VB and Sibley LD. “Sequential protein secretion from three distinct organelles from Toxoplasma gondii accompanies invasion of human fibroblasts”. European Journal of Cell Biology 73 (1997): 114-123.
  9. Black MW., et al. “Lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64 (2000): 607-623.
  10. Beck JR., et al. “Toxoplasma palmitoyl acetyl transferase and the palmitoylated armadillo repeat protein Tg ARO govern apical rhoptry tethering and reveal a critical role for rhoptries in host cell invasion but not egress”. PLoS Pathogen 9 (2013): e1003162.
  11. Muniz-Hernandez S., et al. “Dehydroepiandrosterone effect on Toxoplasma gondii: molecular mechanisms associated to parasite death”. Microorganisms (2021): 9513.
  12. Wu L., et al. “A novel DNA Vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 and ROP18provokes immunity against a lethal challenge in mice”. Acta Parasitology (2021).
  13. Soltani S., et al. “A detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors during pregnancy in south west iran”. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology (2021): 55475547667.
  14. Ahmad M., et al. “Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 255 (2020): 44-50.

Citation

Citation: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur. “An Update on the Management of Toxoplasmosis with Relation to Pregnancy with Current Advances ”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.8 (2021): 53-56.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Kulvinder Kochar Kaur. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.810

Indexed In



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US