Pulmonary Emphysema: An Inflammatory Lung Disease
Jai Prakash Muyal*
Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author:Jai Prakash Muyal, Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Received: June 01, 2021; Published: June 15, 2021
Introduction to the Human Lung
The lungs are the one of the chief organs of the respiratory system of mammals like in humans and many other animals. In humans, the lungs are situated in the thoracic cavity at the middle position of the chest are is resting on the diaphragm. As shown in figure 1, humans and other animals have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung on either side of the heart. It has been observed that the right lung is slightly bigger that the left lung, the reason is unknown. The tentative weight of lung is 1.3 kilograms and it is spongy and sticky in nature and texture. Each lung is enclosed within a pleural sac, this sac contains a special fluid which is called as pleural fluid. This pleural fluid allows the inner and outer walls of the lung to slide over each other and hence reduces friction amid breathing time.
- Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all]cause mortality, and cause specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015”. Lancet 388 (2016): 1459-1544.
- Lopez AD and Murray CC. “The global burden of disease, 1990-2020”. Nature Medicine 4 (1998): 1241-1243.
- WHO Global Infobase on 10th March (2012).
- Halbert RJ., et al. “Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta analysis”. European Respiratory Journal 28 (2006): 523-532.
- Barnes PJ. “Molecular genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. Thorax 54 (1999): 245-252.
- Hochhegger B., et al. “Emphysema and smoking related lung diseases”. The British Institute of Radiology4 (2014).
- Stoller JK and Aboussouan LS. “Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency”. Lancet 365 (2005): 2225-2236.
- Shapiro SD. “Proteolysis in the lung”. European Respiratory Journal 44 (2003): 30s-32s.
- Oshida T and Tuder RM. “Pathobiology of cigarette smoke]induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. Physiology Review 87 (2007): 1047-1082.
- Kotnala S., et al. “Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor attenuates apoptosis in elastase induced emphysematous mice lungs”. Inhalation Toxicology1 (2017): 23]31.
- Massaro GDC and Massaro D. “Retinoic acid treatment abrogates elastase induced pulmonary emphysema in rats”. Nature Medicine 3 (1997): 675-677.
- Chinoy MR. “Lung growth and development”. Frontiers in Bioscience 8 (2003): D392-D415.
- PH Michelson., et al. “Keratinocyte growth factor stimulates bronchial epithelial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo”. American Journal of Physiology 277 (1999): L737-L742.
- Plantier L., et al. “Keratinocyte growth factor protects against elastaseinduced pulmonary emphysema in mice”. American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 293 (2007): L1230-L1239.
- Yaldirim AO., et al. “Palifermin induces alveolar maintenance programs in emphysematous mice”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 7 (2010): 705-717.
- Kotnala S., et al. “rHuKGF ameliorates protease/anti]protease imbalance in emphysematous mice”. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 45 (2017): 124-135.
- Zhongwei Sun., et al. “Stem cell therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current status of pre clinical studies and clinical trials”. Journal of Thoracic Disease2 (2018).