Corona Virus Generated Pathogenesis, Antigenicity, Neurovirulence, and Host Immune Responses
Ravi Kant Upadhyay*
Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP, India
*Corresponding Author: Ravi Kant Upadhyay, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP, India.
Received: April 22, 2021 ; Published: May 17, 2021
This article tries to draw attention of scientific community that coronavirus seems to be a laboratory manufactured virus. Since its outbreak in November 20202 corona virus has infected millions of people and caused thousands of deaths in the world. In a short span of 18 months, it has rapidly spread in more than 207 countries of the world. In all different climatic conditions virus multiplies in squared numbers, with an increase in fatalities and infectivity so far. Its double and triple mutants have appeared with infectivity and lethality, Virus has no effect of climatic conditions and seems thermal resistant; as it is showing almost similar mortality rate in cold countries as well as in warm countries. This is of great concern that reason that virus; behaving like a bio-weapon, much different that any natural virus. It is mutating at much faster rate. It is mutating like an artificial/recombinant/superimposed RNA virus particle and adjusting sequences accordingly in variable weather conditions. Recently its double mutant strains have been detected in large numbers of patients in India in five states. Though, for prophylactic use many vaccines have been generated whose success will depend on behavior of virus because it is highly mutating. It is still doubtful that existing vaccine will provide protection against fast spreading pandemic virus. Present paper is describing corona virus generated pathogenesis, antigenicity neurovirulence, and host immune responses. In this article few important suggestions have been given on virus transmission, pathogenesis, and development of immune responses, prophylaxis and vaccination. It is true that spread of Covid-19 pandemic occurred very fast and raised so many a political, socio-clinical therapeutic and economic issues.
Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Infectivity; Mortality; Conventional Methods and Vaccine
- Catrin S., et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)”. International Journal of Surgery 76 (2020): 71-76.
- Kuldeep Dhama., et al. “COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics”. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 6 (2020): 1232-1238.
- Rodriguez-Morales AJ., et al. “History is repeating itself, a probable zoonotic spillover as a cause of an epidemic: the case of 2019 novel coronavirus”. InfezMed 28 (2020): 3-5.
- Rodriguez-Morales AJ., et al. “Going global: travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 33 (2020): 101578.
- Valdivia-Granda WA and Richt JA. “What We Need to Consider During and After the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic”. Vectors and Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases (2020).
- Nigro OD., et al. “Viruses in the Oceanic Basement”. mBio 8 (2017). pii: e02129-2116.
- Lightner DV. “The Penaeid Shrimp Viruses TSV, IHHNV, WSSV, and YHV”. Journal of Applied Aquaculture (2008): 27-52.
- Cowley J., et al. “Gill-associated virus of Penaeus monodon prawns: An invertebrate virus with ORF1a and ORF1b genes related to arteri- and coronaviruses”. Journal of General Virology 81 (2000): 1473-1484.
- Cowley JA., et al. “The gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein of gill-associated nidovirus of Penaeus monodon prawns is located upstream of the glycoprotein gene”. Journal of Virology 78 (2004): 8935-8941.
- Walker PJ. “The complete genome sequence of gill-associated virus of Penaeus monodon prawns indicates a gene organisation unique among nidoviruses”. Archives of Virology 147 (2002): 1977-1987.
- Cowley JA., et al. “Molecular biology and pathogenesis of roniviruses”. In: Perlman S., Gallagher T., Snijder E.J., editors. Nidoviruses. ASM Press; Washington, DC: (2007): 361-377.
- Madhavi R. “Occurrence of concurrent infections with multiple viruses in Penaeus monodon from culture ponds of north coastal Andhra Pradesh”. Current Science 82 (2002): 1397-1400.
- Natividad KDT., et al. “Simultaneous PCR detection of two shrimp viruses (WSSV and MBV) in postlarvae of Penaeus monodon in the Philippines”. Aquaculture 257 (2006): 142-149.
- Flegel TW., et al. “Presence of multiple viruses in non-diseases cultivated shrimp at harvest”. Aquaculture 240 (2006): 55-68.
- Umesha KR., et al. “Occurrence of multiple viruses in Penaeus monodon shrimp ponds and their effects on shrimp production”. In: Bondad-Reantaso, M.G., Mohan, C.V., Crumlish, M., Subrasinghe, R.P. (Eds.), Diseases in Asian aquaculture VI. Fish Health Section. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, (2008): 389-398.
- Woo PC., et al. “Coronavirus genomics and bioinformatics analysis". Viruses8 (2020): 1804-1820.
- Decaro N. "Gammacoronavirus". In Tidona C, Darai G (eds.). Gammacoronavirus‡: Coronaviridae. The Springer Index of Viruses. Springer (2011): 403-413.
- Kendall EJ., et al. “Virus isolations from common colds occurring in a residential school". British Medical Journal 2 (1962): 82-86.
- McIntosh K. "Coronaviruses: A Comparative Review". In Arber W, Haas R, Henle W, Hofschneider PH, Jerne NK, Koldovský P, Koprowski H, Maaløe O, Rott R (eds.). Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology/Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology/Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (1974): 87.
- "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)" (2020).
- "Il était une fois les coronavirus". Réalités Biomédicales (in French) (2020).
- Kahn JS and McIntosh K. "History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 24 (2005): S223-227.
- Noman A., et al. “Spike glycoproteins: Their significance for corona viruses and receptor binding activities for pathogenesis and viral survival”. Microbe Pathogen 150 (2021): 104719.
- Dennis Normile. “Novel human virus? Pneumonia cases linked to seafood market in China stir concern”. SLEEPINGPANDA/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM (2020).
- Peter J., et al. “Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp”. Veterinary Research6 (2010): 51.
- Labreuche Y., et al. “Lack of evidence for Litopenaeus vannamei Toll receptor (lToll) involvement in activation of sequence-independent antiviral immunity in shrimp”. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 33 (2009): 806-810.
- Yang LS., et al. “A Toll receptor in shrimp”. Molecular Immunology 44 (2007): 1999-1200.
- Takeuchi O and Akira S. “Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation”. Cell 140 (2010): 805-820.
- Kurt-Jones EA., et al. “Innate immune mechanisms and herpes simplex virus infection and disease”. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology 223 (2017): 49-75.
- Katze MG., et al. “Viruses and interferon: a fight for supremacy”. Nature Reviews Immunology 2 (2002): 675-687.
- Akira S., et al. “Pathogen recognition and innate immunity”. Cell 124 (2006): 783-801.
- Iwasaki A and Medzhitov R. “Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses”. Nature Immunology 5 (2004): 987-995.
- Murphy AA., et al. “Synergistic control of herpes simplex virus pathogenesis by IRF-3, and IRF-7 revealed through non-invasive bioluminescence imaging”. Virology 444 (2013): 71-79.
- Marchant A., et al. “Interleukin-10 production during septicaemia”. Lancet 343 (1994): 707-708.
- Hua RH., et al. “Identification and antigenic epitope mapping of immunodominant region amino residues 510 to 672 on the spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. DNA and Cell Biology 8 (2005): 503-509.
- Yu Meng., et al. “Determination and application of immunodominant regions of SARS coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins recognized by sera from different animal species”. Journal of Immunological Methods 331 (2008): 1-2.
- Yun Li., et al. “Coronavirus Neurovirulence Correlates with the Ability of the Virus To Induce Proinflammatory Cytokine Signals from Astrocytes and Microglia”. Journal of Virology7 (2004): 3398-3406.
- Jenny K., et al. “The OC43 human coronavirus envelope protein is critical for infectious virus production and propagation in neuronal cells and is a determinant of neurovirulence and CNS pathology”. Virology 515 (2018): 134-149.
- Gábor Reuter., et al. “Nonsuppurative (Aseptic) Meningoencephalomyelitis Associated with Neurovirulent Astrovirus Infections in Humans and Animals”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 4 (2018): e00040-18.
- Gilmara Gomes de Assis., et al. “Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections: Possible Mechanisms of Neurological Implications—A Systematic Review”. Frontiers in Neurology 11 (2020): 864.
- Stanley Perlman and D Lori Wheeler. “Neurotropic Coronavirus Infections”. Neurotropic Viral Infections (2016): 115-148.
- Lavi E., et al. “Limbic encephalitis following inhalation of murine coronavirus MHV-A59”. Laboratory Investigation 58 (1988): 31-36.
- Lavi E., et al. “Determinants of coronavirus MHV pathogenesis are localized to 3′ portions of the genome as determined by ribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid recombination”. Laboratory Investigation 62 (1990): 570-578.
- Netland J., et al. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2”. Journal of Virology 15 (2008): 7264-7275.
- Mao L., et al. “Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study”. medRxiv (2020).
- Aguilar-Setien A., et al. “Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats”. Epidemiology Infection 133 (2005): 517-522.
- Alcami A and UH Koszinowski. “Viral mechanisms of immune evasion”. Immunology Today 21 (2000): 447-455.
- Alcami A. “Viral mimicry of cytokines, chemokines and their receptors”. Nature Review on Immunology 3 (2003): 36-50.
- Cui J., et al. “Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses”. Nature Review on Microbiology3 (2019): 181-192.
- Field H E., et al. “Epidemiological perspectives on Hendra virus infection in horses and ﬂying foxes”. Australian Veterinary Journal 7 (2007): 268-270.
- Bolker BM and B T Grenfell. “Impact of vaccination in the spatial correlation and persistence of measles dynamics”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (1996): 12648-12653.
- Swinton J., et al. “Persistence thresholds for phocine distemper virus infection in harbour seal Phoca vitulina metapopulations”. Journal of Animal Ecology 67 (1998): 54-68.
- Sarkar SK and AK Chakravarty. “Analysis of immunocompetent cells in the bat, Pteropus giganteus: isolation and scanning electron microscopic characterization”. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 15 (1991): 423-430.
- Lau SK., et al. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (2005): 14040-14045.
- Leroy EM., et al. “Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus”. Nature 438 (2005): 575-576.
- Halpin K., et al. “Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus”. Journal of General Virology 81 (2000): 1927-1932.
- Monami M., et al. “Potential Impact of Climate on Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) Epidemic”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 22 (2020): 10.1097.
- Chan NY., et al. “An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases”. Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (1999): 329-337.
- Tosepu R., et al. “Correlation between weather and Covid‐19 pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia”. Science of the Total Environment 725 (2020): 138436.
- Gupta S., et al. “Effect of weather on COVID‐19 spread in the US: A prediction model for India in 2020”. Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020): 138860.
- Bull G. “The weather and deaths from pneumonia”. Lancet 315 (1980): 1405-1408.
- Harm HogenEsch., et al. “Optimizing the utilization of aluminum adjuvants in vaccines: you might just get what you want”. NPJ Vaccines51 (2018).
- Hayashi K., et al. “Virucidal effects of the steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata and its components on HSV-1, influenza virus, and HIV”. Planta Medica3 (1995): 237-241.
- Lauffer MA and Scott EM. “Thermal destruction of influenza A virus hemagglutinin; the effect of pH”. Archives of Biochemistry 9 (1946): 75-80.
- De Flora S and Badolati G. “Thermal inactivation of untreated and γ-irradiated A2-Aichi-2-68 inﬂuenza virus”. Journal of General Virology 20 (1973): 261-265.
- Upadhyay RK. “Thermal-Aroma-Organic-Carbon-Fusion Therapy: An Open Air Conventional Method for clearance of nasal air passage, trachea, lungs and immunity boosting against Influenza Virus”. International Journal of Zoological Investigations1 (2020): 71-93.