The Long-term Effect of Bacopa monnieri Extract on Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats
Lecturer, Department of Physiology, KMC, MAHE, Manipal, India
*Corresponding Author: Murali Adiga, Lecturer, Department of Physiology, KMC, MAHE, Manipal, India.
August 08, 2022; Published: August 12, 2022
Memory is the process of gathering information from the world around us, processing it, storing it and later recalling that information. Many medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda to boost memory, sleep, immunity, learning and to relieve stress. Among these, Bacopa monnieri (BM), commonly called Brahmi, has been shown to be very useful in improving learning and memory. In our study, we are trying to establish the long-term consequences (either beneficial or adverse) of varying concentrations of Brahmi leaf extract powder (BM) in adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats of 10-12 months old used for this study. 10% and 20% BM diet is prepared using commercially available Brahmi (BM) powder. Rats were assigned to 3 month and 6 month treatment groups. Each rat in the given diet group was fed the designated BM diet (10% or 20%) daily for 3 months and 6 months duration and compared with the negative control. After the test duration, rat learning and memory is tested by T-maze and Passive avoidance tests. In the 3 month and 6-month treatment group, during the T-maze spontaneous alternation test, animals treated with the BM (10% and 20% showed significantly higher numbers of alternations and showed lesser percentage bias in comparison to NC rats. During the T-maze rewarded alternation test, rats treated with BM extract showed a significant increase in the percentage of correct responses when compared to the NC rats. In the passive avoidance tests, no significant change observed in behaviour during exploration trial. But, during the retention trial, rats treated with BM diet (10% and 20%) spent less time in the smaller compartment, suggesting improved memory retention. In both 3 month and 6 month diet groups, same pattern was observed. These results clearly prove that BM extract improved learning and memory in rats.
Keywords: Bacopa monnieri (BM); Brahmi; Spatial Learning; Passive Avoidance
- Sharma PV. “Dravyaguna Vignana”. 13th Chaukhambha Publications, New Delhi. Vishwa Bharati Academypp (1988): 3-5
- Dhawan BN and Singh HK. “Pharmacology of Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera”. Abstract no. 59, International Convention of Biology and Psychiatry, Bombay, India (1996).
- Singh HK and Dhawan BN. “Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera (Brahmi)”. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 29 (1997): 359-365.
- George K Shinomol and Muralidhara. “Bacopa monnieri modulates endogenous cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oxidative markers in prepubertal mice brain”. Phytomedicine4 (2011): 317-326.
- Tamara Simpson., et al. “Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015).
- Sldv Ramana Murty Kadali., et al. “Antidepressant Activity of Brahmi in Albino Mice”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research3 (2014): 35-37.
- Ahirwar S., et al. “Anticholinesterase Efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against the Brain Regions of Rat - A novel approach to therapy for Alzheimer’s disease”. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences 1 (2012): 65-70.
- Rubaba Karim., et al. “Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Activity of Bacopa monnieri (LINN.) on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Mice”. International Journal of Medical Science and Innovative Research (IJMSIR)3 (2018): 196-211.
- Chaudhari KS., et al. “Neurocognitive Effect of Nootropic Drug Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in Alzheimer's Disease”. Annals of Neuroscience2 (2017): 111-122.
- Chowdhuri DK., et al. “Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain”. Phytotherapy Research7 (2002): 639-645.
- Rai D., et al. “Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi)”. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 4 (2003): 823-830.
- Stough C., et al. “The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects”. Psychopharmacology (Berl)4 (2001): 481-484.
- Patnaik N. “Role of Brahmi and Ashwagandha in Anti-Ageing”. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines 3 (2015): 102-104.
- Mallick MN., et al. “Evaluation of anticancer potential of Bacopa monnieri against MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell line”. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences 7.4 (2015): 325-328.
- Venkata Ramana Vollala., et al. “Effect of Bacopa monniera (brahmi) extract on learning and memory in rats: A behavioral study”. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 5 (2010): 69-74.
- Chatterji N., et al. “Chemical examination of Bacopa monniera: Part II – the constitution of bacoside A”. Indian Journal of Chemistry 3 (1965): 24.
- Rastogi S., et al. “Bacoside A– A triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monnieri”. Phytochemistry 36 (1994): 133-137.
- Rai Kiranmai., et al. “Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats”. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology3 (2001): 305-313.
- Dunnett SB., et al. “Septal transplants restore maze learning in rats with fornix fimbria lesions”. Brain Research 251 (1982): 335-348.