“What’s the Deal with Clostridium Difficile?”
Samuel M John*, Adrian Gavre, Yasmin Abu-Abed and Karan Shah
Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine School of Pharmacy, USA
*Corresponding Author: Samuel M John, Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine School of Pharmacy, USA.
June 28, 2022; Published: July 29, 2022
Introduction: Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile is a serious infection associated with deaths and hospitalizations. According to the Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) Prevention, Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile infections (CDI) can be labeled as a threat to healthcare. The introduction of novel agents onto the market have prompted changes in the way we treat CDI, providing clinicians with more robust options, as evidenced by updates to clinical practice guidelines.
Discussion: Exposure to antibiotics (i.e., clindamycin, penicillins, cephalosporins, etc.) are associated with the highest risk in the development of CDI. Presentation can range on a spectrum from asymptomatic carrier to episodic diarrhea to more serious cases such as shock which can lead to death. A proper understanding of risk factors, eliminating unnecessary medications, identifying correct methods in the diagnosis of CDI can help clinicians properly treat patients with the goal to eradicate the infection and prevent recurrence which can lead to a decreased quality of life for the patient.
Conclusions: The approach to the management of CDI in both healthcare institutions and the community involves a coordinated effort between patients, pharmacists and physicians. The recent updates to the guidelines from the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) highlight the value of two novel agents fidaxomicin and bezlotoxumab in treating CDI and its importance in prevention of hospitalizations and recurrence. The economic factors associated with these newer agents and its cost-effectiveness continues to be evaluated through clinical studies.
Keywords: C. difficile; IDSA; CDI; bezlotoxumab; SHEA
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