Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders (ASGIS)(ISSN: 2582-1091)

Case Report Volume 5 Issue 7

A Case Report of Dysentery Caused by an Unusual Shigella Isolate from South India

Lakshmi Shanmugam1, Kamali Doss2, Soundarya Rajamanickam3, Niranjan Biswal4 and Jharna Mandal5*

1M.D Microbiology, Senior Resident, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
2M. Sc, Research Scholar, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
3MBBS, Junior Resident, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
4M.D Pediatrics, Professor (senior scale), Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
5M.D Microbiology, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India

*Corresponding Author: Jharna Mandal, M.D Microbiology, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Received: May 27, 2022; Published:

Abstract

Background: Shigellosis is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among children less than five years (under-5 children). Available literature report Atypical serotypes of Shigella flexneri from various parts of the world. At present, there are 17 serotypes in S. dysenteriae, 6 serotypes and 14 subserotypes in S. flexneri, 20 serotypes in S. boydii and a single serotype of S.sonnei, 2 phases and 5 biotypes (a, b, e, f and g). Here, we report a strain of mannitol non-fermenting S.flexneri serotype 4 in a one-year-old girl child presented with high-grade fever and loose stools.

Clinical Description: A one-year-old girl child with a known history of absence seizures presented with high-grade fever and loose stools for two days, about 8-9 episodes per day, foul-smelling, mucoid in nature, stained with fresh blood, and abdominal pain. The child also had 2-3 episodes of vomiting, non-bilious, non-blood-stained and contained food particles. Stool sample was plated onto MacConkey agar (MAC) and Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar (XLD agar) and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 16-18 hours.Non lactose fermenting and red colonies were seen in MAC and XLD respectively which was identified subsequently as Shigella flexneri by serogrouping, but was a mannitol non fermentor. The isolate was found to harbour multiple virulence genes by PCR.

Conclusion: The child was continued on oral cefixime for 10 days but has not improved following which she was started on Inj. Ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg/day for 5 days and the child improved and discharged subsequently.

Keywords: Atypical Shigella; Type IV Shigella Flexneri; Non-Mannitol Fermentor; Shigellosis; Virulence Genes PCR

References

  1. Von Seidlein Kim DR., et al. “A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology”. PLOS Med 3.9 (2006): e353.
  2. “Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. 2nd edition”. New York: Springer (2001).
  3. Hong S., et al. “Genetic characterization of atypical Shigella flexneri isolated in Korea”. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20 (2010): 1457-1462.
  4. Stagg RM., et al. “A novel glucosyltransferase involved in O-antigen modifification of Shigella flexneri serotype 1c”. Journal of Bacteriology 191 (2009): 6612-6617.
  5. Talukder KA., et al. “Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of serologically atypical strains of Shigella flexneri type 4 isolated in Dhaka, Bangladesh”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40 (2002): 2490-2497.
  6. Shaofu Q., et al. “Multidrug-resistant atypical variants of Shigella flexneri in China”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19 (2013): 1147-1150.
  7. Shahnaij M., et al. “Characterization of a serologically atypical Shigella flexneri Z isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh and a proposed serological scheme for Shigella flexneri”. PLoS ONE 13.8 (2018): e0202704.
  8. Talukder KA., et al. “A novel serovar of Shigella dysenteriae from patients with diarrhoea in Bangladesh”. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56 (2007): 654-658.
  9. Mandal J., et al. “Novel strain of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 7 from India”. New Microbes and New Infections 7 (2015): 97-99.
  10. CLSI. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 31st edition. CLSI supplement M100. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2021).
  11. Das A and Mandal J. “Extensive inter-strain diversity among clinical isolates of Shigella flexneri with reference to its serotype, virulence traits and plasmid incompatibility types, a study from south India over a 6-year period”. Gut Pathogens 11 (2019): 33.
  12. Sun Q., et al. “Development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting O-antigen modification genes for molecular serotyping of Shigella flexneri”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49.11 (2011): 3766-3770.
  13. Effinger A., et al. “Impact of gastrointestinal disease states on oral drug absorption-implications for formulation design-a PEARRL review”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 71.4 (2019): 674-98.

Citation

Citation: Jharna Mandal., et al. “A Case Report of Dysentery Caused by an Unusual Shigella Isolate from South India". Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders 5.7 (2022): 00-00.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Jharna Mandal., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is November 30, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US