Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders (ASGIS)(ISSN: 2582-1091)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 5

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Disorders: Possible Pathomechanism of SARS-CoV2 Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

Winarko Luminturahardjo

Department of Internal Medicine, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Panti Nirmala Hospital Malang, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author: Winarko Luminturahardjo, Department of Internal Medicine, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Panti Nirmala Hospital Malang, Indonesia.

Received: March 31, 2022

; Published: April 27, 2022


COVID-19 infection has become a global pandemic and has hit almost all countries in the world. SARS CoV2 virus can cause mainly respiratory infection called COVID19, but can also influence another organs, like gastrointestinal system. One of the comorbidities related to the digestive organs is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) which is the most common inflammation in the large intestine. The prevalence rate of IBD has recently increased (approximately 400 cases per 100,000 person/years in 2020) mainly related to low fiber diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and the influence of environmental factors, such as air pollution. The mechanism of the relationship between COVID19 infection and IBD is still not widely known. Several theories explain that genetic factors, direct infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus, inflammation, the influence of the gut microbiota, and COVID19 therapy are suspected of having effect on the worsening of IBD. Through this article, the author would like to describe some of the pathomechanism reviews of the influence of COVID19 infection on patients who have experienced IBD. By knowing the right pathomechanism, it is hoped that medical personnel can handle cases of patients with IBD who experience COVID-19 infection and can further reduce the morbidity and mortality rates.

Keywords:COVID19; IBD; Direct Infection; Inflammation; Dysbiosis; Hypercoagulation



  1. Chen F., et al. “Gastrointestinal Disease and COVID-19: A Review of Current Evidence”. Digestive Diseases (2021).
  2. Creemers RH., et al. “Severe COVID-19 in inflammatory bowel disease patients in a population-based setting”. PLoS One (2021): 16.
  3. Zhang J., et al. “Gastrointestinal symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment in COVID-19”. Genes and Diseases. Chongqing University 8 (2021): 385-400.
  4. Ungaro RC., et al. “New Gastrointestinal Symptoms Are Common in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients With COVID-19: Data from an International Registry”. Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2 (2022): 314-317.
  5. Mtsweni ES., et al. “Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID19: impact on the gut microbiome”. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 1 (2020): 1-9.
  6. Kostoff RN., et al. “Common contributing factors to COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease”. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021): 1616-1637.
  7. Yang C and Xiao SY. “COVID-19 and inflammatory bowel disease: A pathophysiological assessment”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 135 (2021): 111233.
  8. Jiang M., et al. “COVID-19 With Preexisting Hypercoagulability Digestive Disease”. Frontiers in Medicine 7 (2021): 1-6.
  9. Chen CC., et al. “Intestinal dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease”. Gut Microbes4 (2011).
  10. Lee SH., et al. “Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease”. Intestinal Research 1 (2018): 26-42.
  11. Zhang YZ and Li YY. “Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 1 (2014): 91-99.
  12. Hanauer SB. “Inflammatory bowel disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities”. Inflammatory Bowel Disease 5-1 (2006): 3-9.
  13. Mahmud N., et al. “Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Who Contract Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2”. Gastroenterology 5 (2021): 1709-1711.
  14. Neurath MF. “COVID-19 and immunomodulation in IBD”. Gut 7 (2020): 1335-1342.
  15. Kumric M., et al. “Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review of the current evidence”. World Journal of Gastroenterology25 (2021): 3748-3761.
  16. Lingeswaran M., et al. “Inflammation, Immunity and Immunogenetics in COVID-19: A Narrative Review”. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 3 (2020): 260-273.
  17. Samuelson DR., et al. “Regulation of lung immunity and host defense by the intestinal microbiota”. Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (2015).
  18. Scribano ML. “Why Do Immunosuppressed Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Not Seem to Be at a Higher Risk of COVID-19?” Digestive Diseases and Sciences 9 (2021): 2855-2864.
  19. Alshehri D., et al. “Dysbiosis of gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: Current therapies and potential for microbiota-modulating therapeutic approaches”. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 3 (2021): 270-283.
  20. Liu S., et al. “The microbiome in inflammatory bowel diseases: from pathogenesis to therapy”. Protein Cell 5 (2021): 331-345.
  21. Mirsepasi-Lauridsen HC., et al. “Disease-specific enteric microbiome dysbiosis in Inflammatory Bowel disease”. Frontiers in Medicine 5 (2018): 1-8.
  22. Dumas A., et al. “The role of the lung microbiota and the gut-lung axis in respiratory infectious diseases”. Cell Microbiology12 (2018): 1-9.
  23. Alkim H., et al. “Etiopathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment of Thromboembolism in Inflammatory Bowel Disease”. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 6 (2017): 501-510.
  24. Zezos P., et al. “Inflammatory bowel disease and thromboembolism”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 38 (2014): 13863-13878.
  25. Páramo JA. “Inflammatory Response in Relation to COVID-19 and Other Prothrombotic Phenotypes”. Reumatología Clínica 1 (2022): 1-4.


Citation: Winarko Luminturahardjo. “COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Disorders: Possible Pathomechanism of SARS-CoV2 Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients". Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders 5.5 (2022): 58-64.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US