Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders (ASGIS)(ISSN: 2582-1091)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 5

Bakery Products Enriched with Eruca Sativa Mill Defatted Seed Meal Ameliorates Systemic Markers of Inflammation and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Adults- A Pilot Study

Eleonora Pagnotta1, Andrea Lisotti2, Luisa Ugolini1, Roberto Matteo1, Placido Franco3, Giulia Roda4*, Aldo Roda4,5 and Enrico Roda4

1Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Centre for Industrial Crops, CREA-CI via di Corticella, Bologna, Italy
2Department of Medical and Surgical Science - DIMEC, University of Bologna, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti, Bologna, Italy
3Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician”, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Via Selmi, Bologna, Italy
4FISS - Health Sciences Institute Foundation, Via Stradelli Guelfi, Bologna, Italy
5Biostructures and Biosystems National Institute (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie d'Oro, Rome, Italy

*Corresponding Author: Giulia Roda, FISS - Health Sciences Institute Foundation, Via Stradelli Guelfi, Bologna, Italy.

Received: February 24, 2022; Published: April 18, 2022


Introduction: Most patients with metabolic syndrome present non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFD). High consumption of fruit and vegetable has been related to a lower incidence of chronic diseases. Of note, among vegetables, brassicaceae family is at the first place. Therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory disease as well as cancer are evolving and includes biologically active phytocompounds. A sulfur-containing glucosinolate (GLS) secondary plant compounds exclusively present in Brassicaceae- and their breakdown products including isothiocyanates (NCS) have shown to possess important anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic property. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the effects of daily consumption of E. sativa defatted seed meal enriched bakery products on glucose and lipid metabolism and on systemic markers of inflammation.

Material and Methods: After an 8-week run-in period, patients were asked for 4 weeks to maintain their usual diet replacing 150 gr. of bakery products with the same number of enriched bakery product. Fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-r, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, ALT, Gamma-GT, high sensitivity C reactive protein, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8 and TNF-α were compared before and after the study period.

Results: HOMA-r showed a statistically significant reduction after 4 weeks period as well as cholesterol ratio 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.6 ± 1.0 (P = 0.03). Among markers of inflammation, high sensitivity CRP showed a statistically significant reduction (-36.8%) from 1.4 (0.4 - 10.4) to 0.9 (0.4 - 8.7) mg/dl (P = 0.02) as well as TNF-α 8.0 ± 3.0 vs. 7.1 ± 2.7 pg/ml (- 11.3%; P < 0.001). Despite a mild ALT reduction (- 7.0%), Gamma-GT showed a - 21.0% decrease from 20.0 ± 6.6 to 15.8 ± 6.4 U/L (P < 0.001). IL-6 and IL-8 were substantially unmodified.

Conclusion: as cracker can improve glucose and lipids metabolism in parallel with a significant improvement of serum Bakery products enriched with Eruca sativa Mill defatted seed meal markers of inflammation and therefore being of interest for patients affected by inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: Bakery Products; Eruca Sativa Mill; Glucose and Lipid; Seed Meal


  1. Gründemann C and Huber R. "Chemoprevention with isothiocyanates - From bench to bedside”. Cancer Letters 414 (2018): 26-33.
  2. Maldini M., et al. “Untargeted metabolomics reveals predominant alterations in lipid metabolism following light exposure in broccoli sprouts”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences6 (2015): 13678-13691.
  3. Huang C., et al. “Isothiocyanates protect against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction by upregulating Nrf2-dependent antioxidation and suppressing NFκB activation”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research11 (2013): 1918-1930.
  4. Armah CN., et al. “Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research5 (2015): 918-926.
  5. Heiss E., et al. “Nuclear Factor κB Is a Molecular Target for Sulforaphane-mediated Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms”. Journal of Biological Chemistry34 (2001): 32008-32015.
  6. Lee J., et al. “Sulforaphane attenuates activation of NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes but not AIM2 inflammasome”. Cellular Immunology 306-307 (2016): 53-60.
  7. Choi K., et al. “Sulforaphane attenuates obesity by inhibiting adipogenesis and activating the AMPK pathway in obese mice”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry2 (2014): 201-207.
  8. Ferramosca A., et al. “Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function”. Andrology3 (2017): 423-430.
  9. Clarke JD., et al. “Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design”. Pharmacological Research5 (2011): 456-463.
  10. De Nicola GR., et al. “Comparison of bioactive phytochemical content and release of isothiocyanates in selected brassica sprouts”. Food Chemistry1 (2013): 297-303.
  11. Citi V., et al. “Anticancer properties of erucin, an H2 S-releasing isothiocyanate, on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (AsPC-1)”. Phytotherapy Research 3 (2019): 845-855.
  12. Barillari J., et al. “Direct antioxidant activity of purified glucoerucin, the dietary secondary metabolite contained in rocket (Eruca sativa) seeds and sprouts”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53.7 (2005): 2475-2482.
  13. Franco P., et al. “Development of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of intact glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae seeds and functional foods”. Journal of Chromatography A 1428 (2016): 154-161.
  14. Lazzeri L., et al. “Characterization of the main glucosinolate content and fatty acid composition in non-food Brassicaceae seeds”. Acta Horticoulturae 1005 (2013): 331-338.
  15. Finiguerra MG., et al. “Soluble and total myrosinase activity in defatted Crambe abyssinica meal”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry49.2 (2001): 840-845.
  16. Matthews DR., et al. “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man”. Diabetologia7 (1985): 412-419.
  17. Lemieux I., et al. “Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio vs LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio as indices of ischemic heart disease risk in men: the Quebec Cardiovascular Study”. Archives of Internal Medicine 22 (2001): 2685-2692.


Citation: Giulia Roda., et al. “Bakery Products Enriched with Eruca Sativa Mill Defatted Seed Meal Ameliorates Systemic Markers of Inflammation and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Adults- A Pilot Study". Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders 5.5 (2022): 08-14.


Copyright: © 2022 Giulia Roda., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US