Hepatitis B Sero-Conversion Rates among HIV Positive Children Immunized with Pentavalent Vaccine in Bamenda Health District, Cameroon
Lem Edith Abongwa1*, Forwang Lisette Nkengbeza1, Clauvis Yengo2, Signang Alberic3 and Mabeyonga Berenice Fokong1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, N. W. Region, Cameroon
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon
3Mbingo Baptist Hospital, Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, BMP 41 via Bamenda, Cameroon
*Corresponding Author: Lem Edith Abongwa, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Bamenda, N. W. Region, Cameroon.
June 04, 2021; Published: july 06, 2021
Background/Aims: Immunosuppression caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) alters the pathogenesis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection thereby increasing HBV prevalence. Globally, HIV and HBV remain major public health concerns. Immunization is an effective method of preventing childhood infection. This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the pentavalent vaccine in the prevention of HBV transmission in HIV-positive children.
Methods: Children who gave their assent with the consent of their parents/guardians were recruited into the study. Socio-demographic information was collected using a close-ended questionnaire. Serum samples were used to test for serological markers of HBV. One hundred and fifty-six children were enrolled between March and July 2020. Data analyses were done using SPSS version 23.0.
Results: The age range of the participants were 0.8 months to 15 years with a mean ± standard deviation of 9.6 ± 3.8 years. The prevalence of HBV among the study participants was 2 (1.3%), and it was insignificantly (p = 0.25) higher in females (2.1% vs 0.0%) compared to their male counterparts. As concerns age group, <6years recorded the lowest prevalence 0 (0.0%) and this was insignificant (P = 0.88). HBV prevalence was highly significant (p = 0.001) among children whose parents/guardians were positive 2 (15.4%) for HBV
Conclusion: The use of the pentavalent vaccine is effective in preventing HBV and all babies born to HBV-positive pregnant women should be followed up to ensure that they receive the monovalent vaccine at birth and 4 weeks after birth alongside all the required vaccines. .
Keywords: Children; HBV; HIV; Pentavalent Vaccine
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