Detection of Human Intestinal Parasites in Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia
Eman M Hussein1,4*, Nawal M Osman2, Sarah A Al-Harbi3, Ahlam S Al Abbad3, Noof A Alghamdi3, Raghad A Alghamdi3, Lama M Alkhediwi3, Safa S Al Zahrani3, Yakin H Alhaddad3 and Ala A Atta5
1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA
2Family Medicine and Community Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA
3Medical Students, Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University, Al Baha, KSA
4Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
5Microbiology Department, Faculty of Dentists, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA
*Corresponding Author: Eman M Hussein, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA and Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
March 23, 2021; Published: May 17, 2021
Introduction: Ingestion of contaminated fresh leafy vegetables had an important role in the transmission of several intestinal parasitic diseases.
Objectives: This study aimed to identify human intestinal parasites in commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in Al-Baha Region, Saudi Arabia.
Methodology: In the current study, 400 leafy vegetable samples collected randomly from the supermarkets and open-aired markets at different times of the year in Al-Baha city were examined to detect the frequency of contamination with human intestinal parasites. Sediments and supernatants of concentrated washing solution of vegetables were examined after stained by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen.
Results: The leafy vegetables contaminated with intestinal parasites were 41% (164/400). The most contaminated leafy vegetables were spinach, red radish, watercress and lettuce with 58.3%, 57.5%, 55% and 50%, respectively, while the less contaminated were mint and cabbage with 16.6% per each. Green onions, parsley, dill, celery, leek and coriander were contaminated with 40%, 37.5%, 33.3%, 31.2%, 25% and 21.9%, respectively. Contaminated leafy vegetables collected from open-air markets was 41% compared to 33% of that were collected from supermarkets. These results were statistically significant. About 122 leafy vegetables out of 164 (74.3%) were contaminated with helminths. Taeniid eggs and Strongyloides larvae were the most common with 18.3% (30 leafy vegetables per each). About 141 leafy vegetables out of 164 (85.9%) were contaminated with pathogenic human intestinal protozoa. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts were the most commonly found with 48 (29.3%) and 35 (21.3%), respectively. The highest prevalence was in spring (45.5%) and the lowest was in summer (33.3%). These results were statistically significant.
Conclusion: Control measures should include treatment of irrigation water, municipal wastewater, treatment of infected persons and mass education of the persons in contact with fresh leafy vegetables to avoid a greater health risk from handling and consuming these vegetables.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolism; Visceral Fat; Insulin; Cholesterol
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