Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 2

Effect of Enamel Deproteinization Using Ficin on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

Hamza Gaaloul1*, Ghassen Kallel1, Mahassen Barboura2, Salah Mezlini3, Leila Chekir-Ghedira2, Ines Dallel4, Samir Tobji4 and Adel Ben Amor5

1Resident, Department of Orthodontics, Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia
2Unit of Bioactive and Natural Substances and Biotechnology UR17ES49, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Monastir, Tunisia
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Monastir, Tunisia
4Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia
5Head of Orthodontics Department, Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia

*Corresponding Author: Hamza Gaaloul, Resident, Department of Orthodontics, Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia.

Received: November 29, 2021; Published: January 25, 2022


Objective: To test the effect of ficin as an enamel deproteinizing substance on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Materials and Methods: Forty-two teeth were used and divided into two groups: a control group (enamel surface was not treated with ficin) and a test group (enamel surface was deproteinized by ficin before etching). After bonding, shear bond strength was measured using a universal mechanical test machine. The two groups were compared using independent-samples Student’s t-test (p<0.05).

Results: The ficin group showed higher shear bond strength, the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.037).

Conclusion: A deproteinization step using ficin is recommended to be added to the traditional bonding protocol in order to enhance shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Keywords: Deproteinization; Ficin; Orthodontic Brackets; Shear Bond Strength


  1. Beckwith FR., et al. “An evaluation of factors affecting duration of orthodontic treatment”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics4 (1999): 439-447.
  2. Skidmore KJ., et al. “Factors influencing treatment time in orthodontic patients”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics2 (2006): 230-238.
  3. Popowich K., et al. “Predictors for Class II treatment duration”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics3 (2005): 293-300.
  4. Panchal S., et al. “Effects of different deproteinizing agents on topographic features of enamel and shear bond strength - An in vitro study”. Journal of Orthodontic Science 1 (2019): 17.
  5. Stasinopoulos D., et al. “Failure patterns of different bracket systems and their influence on treatment duration: A retrospective cohort study”. Angle Orthodontist3 (2018): 338-347.
  6. Pizzo G., et al. “Root resorption and orthodontic treatment. Review of the literature”. Minerva Stomatology1-2 (2007): 31-44.
  7. Knobloch LA., et al. “Microleakage and bond strength of sealant to primary enamel comparing air abrasion and acid etch techniques”. Pediatric Dentistry6 (2005): 463-469.
  8. Martínez-Insua A., et al. “Differences in bonding to acid-etched or Er:YAG-laser-treated enamel and dentin surfaces”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry3 (2000): 280-288.
  9. Shah J and Chadwick S. “Comparison of 1-stage orthodontic bonding systems and 2-stage bonding systems: a review of the literature and the results of a randomized clinical trial”. Orthodontie Française 2 (2009): 167-178.
  10. Coreil MN., et al. “Shear bond strength of four orthodontic bonding systems”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics2 (1990): 126-129.
  11. Hobson RS., et al. “A quantitative study of enamel acid etch patterns on surfaces used for retention of resin-bonded fixed prostheses”. European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry 3 (2005): 123-128.
  12. Hobson RS., et al. “Acid-etch patterns on the buccal surface of human permanent teeth”. Archives of Oral Biology 5 (2002): 407-412.
  13. Hilton TJ., et al. “Summitt’s Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry: A Contemporary Approach”. Quintessence Publishing Company Incorporated (2013).
  14. Justus R., et al. “A New Technique With Sodium Hypochlorite to Increase Bracket Shear Bond Strength of Fluoride-releasing Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cements: Comparing Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Systems With Enamel Surface Deproteinization Before Etching”. Seminars in Orthodontics 1 (2010): 66-75.
  15. Rosyida NF., et al. “Improving Tensile Bond Strength of Orthodontic Bracket by Applying Papain Gel as an Email Deproteinization Agent”. Journal of Dentistry Indonesia 3 (2017): 70-74.
  16. Pithon MM., et al. “Effect of 10% papain gel on enamel deproteinization before bonding procedure”. The Angle Orthodontist 3 (2012): 541-545.
  17. Agarwal R., et al. “Enamel Deproteinization using Papacarie and 10% Papain Gel on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Before and After Acid Etching”. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 4 (2015): 348-357.
  18. Milošević J., et al. “Comparative stability of ficin and papain in acidic conditions and the presence of ethanol”. Amino Acids 5 (2019): 829-838.
  19. Morellon-Sterling R., et al. “Ficin: A protease extract with relevance in biotechnology and biocatalysis”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 162 (2020): 394-404.
  20. Di Pierro G., et al. “Antioxidant activity of bovine casein hydrolysates produced by Ficus carica L.-derived proteinase”. Food Chemistry 156 (2014): 305-311.
  21. Hannig C., et al. “Enzymes in the acquired enamel pellicle”. European Journal of Oral Sciences 1 (2005): 2-13.
  22. Yang Y., et al. “Intrinsic Peroxidase-like Activity of Ficin”. Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 43141.
  23. Mohammadi N., et al. “The effect of sodium hypochlorite enamel pretreatment on the shear bond strength of fissure sealant using a resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a fluoride-releasing self-etch resin adhesive”. Dental Research Journal (Isfahan) 18 (2021): 13.
  24. Harleen N., et al. “Enamel deproteinization before acid etching and its effect on the shear bond strength--an in vitro study”. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 1 (2011): 19-23.
  25. Espinosa R., et al. “Enamel deproteinization and its effect on acid etching: an in vitro study”. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry1 (2008): 13-19.


Citation: Hamza Gaaloul., et al. “Effect of Enamel Deproteinization Using Ficin on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets". Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 6.2 (2022): 118-122.


Copyright: © 2022 Hamza Gaaloul., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate33%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US