Acta Scientific Computer Sciences

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 1

A Review of Recent Progress in Stepping-stone Intrusion Detection

Lixin Wang* and Jianhua Yang

TSYS School of Computer Science, Columbus State University, Columbus, Georgia, USA

*Corresponding Author: Lixin Wang, TSYS School of Computer Science, Columbus State University, Columbus, Georgia, USA.

Received: December 03, 2021; Published: December 23, 2021


Hackers on the Internet usually send attacking commands through compromised hosts, referred to as stepping-stones, in order to avoid being detected. Stepping-stone intrusion (SSI) is a hacking technique used by intruders to launch cyber-attacks and allows them to hide behind a long connection chain. In an SSI attack, an intruder employs a chain of stepping-stones as relay hosts and remotely connect these stepping-stones using software like SSH. Due to the nature of the TCP protocol, an interactive session of a TCP connection between a client and a server is independent of other sessions in the connection. Therefore, it is extremely hard to detect the origin of the attack if an intruder gained unauthorized access to a remote target system through multiple relayed TCP sessions. The final target of a TCP connection chain may only capture the traffic from the last session of the chain, but can hardly learn any information about the attacker machine. There are quite a few recent significant and innovative approaches for SSI detection (SSID) that have not yet been reviewed and compared with other similar SSID approaches. This paper conducts a research survey on most of the significant approaches proposed for SSID by far with the inclusion of all recent progress in this area. The SSID methods reviewed in this paper are categorized into two different types: host- based and network-based approaches, according to the number of the hosts that play a key role in the SSID algorithm design. The contributions and limitations of every SSID approach included in this paper are clearly described and compared with similar SSID approaches proposed in the literature.


Keywords: Stepping-stone Intrusion; Intrusion Detection; Network Security; Connection Chain; Interactive Session


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Citation: Lixin Wang and Jianhua Yang. “A Review of Recent Progress in Stepping-stone Intrusion Detection". Acta Scientific Computer Sciences 3.1 (2022): 46-53.


Copyright: © 2022 Lixin Wang and Jianhua Yang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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