Sigma Receptors: Literature Review
Bon EI, Lychkovskaya MA, Kudyan IA, Kudyan MG and Lizaveta I Bon*
Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Republic of Belarus
*Corresponding Author: Lizaveta I Bon, Candidate of Biological Science, Assistant Professor of Pathophysiology Department Named D.A. Maslakov, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Republic of Belarus.
Received: July 19, 2022; Published: August 10, 2022
The paper reviewed data confirming that sigma1 receptors modulate NMDA neurotransmission. It has been established that they can enhance the spontaneous release of glutamate in the hippocampus, potentiate the release of a neurotrophic factor induced by glutamate, and also participate in the processes of synaptic restructuring (facilitation of long-term potentiation) in the mammalian hippocampus. But the use of high doses of agonists or antagonists of sigma1 receptors in animal models does not have any effect on memory modulation or learning processes in control animals. These findings indicate that sigma1 receptors do not affect the physiological (normal) processes of memory consolidation. The effects of sigma1 receptors considered in the work speak of effects on cognitive processes only in conditions of neurotransmitter imbalance. In a number of works, with the participation of various experimental models, the possible involvement of sigma1 receptors in the processes of memory recovery was revealed. A real breakthrough in the treatment of affective disorders is being made in our time due to an increasingly detailed study of the mechanisms of intracellular receptor structures and chaperone proteins, in particular, sigma receptors. By acting on these mechanisms, side effects in the treatment of depression, inevitable with the use of traditional antidepressants, can be avoided. Also, thanks to modern drugs based on interaction with sigma receptors, it is possible to influence neurogenesis, learning and memory processes. Thus, the sigma-1 receptor is an extremely promising object that can be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathological diseases.
Keywords: Sigma1 Receptors; Models; Drugs
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