Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports

Case ReportVolume 3 Issue 7

Electrical Resistivity and Physio-chemical Survey Applied to the Study of Ground Water Contamination Around an Old Cemetery in Gashua, Bade Local Government Area Yobe, State, Nigeria

OO Galdima1, GA Bala1, IG Buba1 and U Rilwan2*

1Federal University, Gashuwa, Yobe State, Nigeria
2Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: U Rilwan, Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria.

Received: May 09, 2022; Published: June 23, 2022

Abstract

In this study, 1D and 2D electrical resistivity and physio-chemical survey applied to the study of ground water contamination around an old cemetery in Gashua, Bade Local Government area Yobe, State, Nigeria was investigated. It was revealed that, all the seven (7) VES points have four layers. The types of curve in Bade 1-7 Community are majorly Q, KH, K, KHK and QHK respectively. These curves indicate a good type of curve for the viable existence of groundwater aquifer. The pseudo-sections along profile line N-S across VES 5&3 has a resistivity value range between 23-237 Ωm, profile line N-S across VES 6-2 have resistivity value range of 35-278 and pseudo-sections along profile line N-S across VES (7-1) have resistivity value of 19.3-268 Ωm. The regions in the pseudo-profile showing low resistivity value signifies the presence of a fluid which indicates presence of good water table. As it goes deeper, the resistivity (apparent) reduces and later rise again as it goes deeper, which may be due to reduction in the size of the grain, since a low resistivity layer exists, or a low resistivity surface water (water log) value exists in the upper layers of the area (in depth), then, grain sizes reduces which may lead to high resistivity value. The result also showed that the range of the Alpha activity was obtained to be 0.02078 for maximum value and 0.0016 for minimum value of Alpha activity concentration, and 0.22324 for maximum value and 0.00443 for minimum value of Beta activity concentration. The mean of the activity values was calculated to be 0.0112 for Alpha and 0.0452 for Beta activity. The overall result showed that both Alpha and Beta in the thirteen (13) samples are far below the recommended level by WHO. The results of AAS showed the presence of Magnesium (MG), Manganese (Mn), Copper (cu), Cadmium (cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co)2 Nickel (Ni) Lead (pb), Zink (Zn), and selenium (Se) in the Gashua cemetery soil.

Keywords: Cemetery; Groundwater; Contamination; 2D Resistivity; Physiochemical; Bade

Bibliography

  1. Usman R., et al. “Assessment and Analysis of the Presence of Heavy Metals in Water in Ara and Laminga of Nasarawa State, Nigeria: Health Implication on the Populace”. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology1 (2020): 240-246.
  2. Rilwan Usman A M., et al. “Health Implication of the Accumulation of Heavy Metals Concentration in Ara and Laminga Water Sources of Nasararawa Local Government Area in Nasarawa State, Nigeria”. NAUB Journal of Science and Technology (NAUBJOST)1 (2021): 101-106.
  3. Usman Rilwan., et al. “Heavy Metal Contamination in Swampy Agricultural Soils of Kokona, Nasarawa, Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research1 (2020): 28-33.
  4. U Rilwan., et al. “Heavy Metal Contamination and Its Risk for Swampy Agricultural Soils of Keffi, Nasarawa West, Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research1 (2020): 1-11.
  5. Akinbiyi R. “Improving the urban environment”. Africa Health1 (1992): 112-124.
  6. Akpan AY. “Physico-chemical studies on the pollution potential of Itu River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria”. World Journal of Agriculture and Soil Science 1 (2004): 1-4.
  7. Ali MH and Abdel-Satar AM. “Studies of some heavy metals in water, sediment, fish and fish diets in some fish farms in El-Fayoum province”. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 1 (2005): 261-273.
  8. Barber W and jones DG. “The Geology and Hydrology of Maiduguri, Bornu Province”. Geol. Surv. Nigeria 1.1 (1958): 5-20.
  9. Barber W. “Pressure Water in the Chad Formation of Bornu and Dikwa Emirates, north-Eastern Nigeria”. Geological Survey of Nigeria 35 (1965).
  10. Breusse JT. “Modern Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Water Exploration”. Geophysics1 (1963): 633-657.
  11. Carter JD., et al. “The Geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi and Bornu Provinces in North-Eastern Nigeria”. Geological Survey of Nigeria 30 (1963): 109.
  12. Cratchley CR. “Geological Survey of the South Western Part of the Chad Basin”. C.T.A. Publ., No 31.1 (1960): 1-9.
  13. Corry JEL. “Post-mortem ethanol production”. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1 (1978): 1-48.
  14. Dent BB and Knight MJ. “Cemeteries: a special kind of landfill”. In: Proceedings of IAH Sustainable Solutions Conference, Melbourne, February 1998. Kenilworth, International Association of Hydrologists (1998).
  15. Dent BB. “Hydrogeological studies at Botany Cemetery”. Sydney, University of Technology, M.Sc. project report (1995).
  16. Duboise SM. “Poliovirus survival and movement in a sandy forest soil”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology1 (1976): 536-543.
  17. Pedley S and Guy H. “The public health implications of microbiological contamination of groundwater”. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 1 (1996): 179-188.
  18. O’Brien RT and Newman JS. “Inactivation of polioviruses and coxsackrie viruses in surface water”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology1 (1977): 334-341.
  19. Lance JC and Gerba CP. “Poliovirus movement during high rate land filtration of sewage water”. Journal of Environmental Quality1 (1980): 31-34.

Citation: U Rilwan., et al. “Electrical Resistivity and Physio-chemical Survey Applied to the Study of Ground Water Contamination Around an Old Cemetery in Gashua, Bade Local Government Area Yobe, State, Nigeria". Acta Scientific Clinical Case Reports 3.7 (2022): 69-80.

Copyright: © 2022 U Rilwan., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US