Epidemiology and Trend of Oesophageal Cancer in Santiago de Cuba
Téllez-Almenares O*, Cisneros-Domínguez CM and Romero-García LI
Department of General Surgery, Saturnino Lora Provincial Hospital, University of Medical Sciences of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
*Corresponding Author: Téllez-Almenares O, Department of General Surgery, Saturnino Lora Provincial Hospital, University of Medical Sciences of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.
Received: February 25, 2022; Published: April 19, 2022
The incidence of oesophageal cancer varies significantly among different regions of the world and even within countries. More than 600 000 patients are diagnosed with oesophageal cancer worldwide each year. The aim of this research is to describe the epidemiological characteristics in the reference population and to identify the differential magnitude of incidence of patients with oesophageal cancer in the population, according to histological type. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted out in a first methodological stage and longitudinal one in a second(trend). For the analysis of the problems detected, the time period was from January 2011 to December 2020, and a sample of 197 patients was selected for the trend analysis. For the characterisation of the referred population, according to variables of interest, a subsample of 195 patients discharged from the hospital was selected, which included only the histological types of interest for the study: oesophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma reported the highest percentages: 78.2%, but despite this, there was a slightly downward trend for this histological type and a slightly upward trend for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The municipality of Santiago de Cuba registered the highest figures for both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma: 40.3% and 26.8% respectively, with the highest number of cases in San Luis. The incidence of the disease was higher in patients over 50 years of age, with a high incidence in males and mixed race patients, although there were reports of subjects younger than 40 years old. The joint effect of tobacco and alcohol consumption showed a strong association for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, with a Cramer's coefficient of 0.67.
Keywords: oesophageal adenocarcinoma, oesophagus cancer, squamous cell cancer
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