Role of URIC ACID in Disease: A Journey from Gout to Metabolic Syndrome
Tahseen Bilal Rather1, Gulzar Ahmad Bhat1#, Gowhar Rashid1#, Ishrat Parveiz Bhat1, Ab Nasir Sheikh1, Jaffer Wani2 and Syed Mudassar1*
1Department of Clinical Biochemistry SKIMS, Srinagar, Kashmir, India
2University of Kashmir, India
## Authors contributed equally
*Corresponding Author: Syed Mudassar, Professor and Head, Department of Clinical Biochemistry SKIMS, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.
Received: March 10, 2022; Published: April 04, 2022
Background: Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism. Its recent link with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and COVID-19 related complications has brought this molecule to limelight. From an innocent bypasser initially thought to be associated only with gout to a central key player playing role in metabolic syndrome, uric acid has become the element of huge interest.
Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to document the levels of serum uric acid (SUA) in general population across different age groups and gender.
Materials and Methods: A total of 858 subjects were recruited for the analysis of SUA. Samples were analysed on fully automated analyser (Beckman Coulter, AU5800). The levels were measured by uricase/POD method .
Results: The overall median SUA levels recorded in our population was 4.74 mg/dl (IQR = 3.61), which was within the normal reference limits. The UA levels in males were a bit higher (5 mg/dl) than females (4.5).
Conclusion: The results of our study show that serum UA levels in the study population were normal, well within the reference range. In the light of the fact that uric acid is a risk factor for many diseases, its continuous monitoring should be encouraged.
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Serum Uric Acid; Kashmir; COVID-19
- CAL UA. Uric Acid. Uricase-POD. Liquid Ref.: URI-016.
- Sharaf El Din UAA., et al. “Uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases: A review”. Journal of Advanced Research5 (2017): 537-548.
- Hediger MA., et al. “Molecular physiology of urate transport”. Physiology (Bethesda) 20.2 (2005): 125-133.
- Kang D-H and Chen W. “Uric acid and chronic kidney disease: new understanding of an old problem”. Paper presented at: Seminars in Nephrology (2011).
- Campion EW., et al. “Asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Risks and consequences in the Normative Aging Study”. The American Journal of Medicine3 (1987): 421-426.
- So A and Thorens B. “Uric acid transport and disease”. Journal of Clinical Investigation6 (2010): 1791-1799.
- Haig A. “Uric Acid as a Factor in the Causation of Disease: A Contribution to the Pathology of High Arterial Tension, Head-ache, Epilepsy, Mental Depression, Paroxysmal Hæmoglobinuria and Anæmia, Bright's Disease, Diabetes, Gout, Rheumatism, and Other Disorders”. J.&A. Churchill; (1896).
- Haig A. “Uric Acid as a Factor in the Causation of Disease: A Contribution to the Pathology of High Blood Pressure, Headache, Epilepsy, Mental Disease, Paroxysmal Hæmoglobinuria and Anæmia, Bright's Disease, Diabetes, Gout, Rheumatism, and Other Disorders”. J.&A. Churchill; (1900).
- GERTLER MM., et al. “Serum uric acid in relation to age and physique in health and in coronary heart disease”. Annals of Internal Medicine6 (1951): 1421-1431.
- Nakagawa T., et al. “Unearthing uric acid: an ancient factor with recently found significance in renal and cardiovascular disease”. Kidney International10 (2006): 1722-1725.
- Kanbay M., et al. “Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player”. European Journal of Internal Medicine 29 (2016): 3-8.
- Werion A., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 causes a specific dysfunction of the kidney proximal tubule”. Kidney International 5 (2020): 1296-1307.
- Chen B., et al. “Serum Uric Acid Concentrations and Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Patients With COVID-19”. Frontiers in Endocrinology (Lausanne). 12 (2021): 633767-633767.
- Zhu P., et al. “Serum uric acid is associated with incident chronic kidney disease in middle-aged populations: a meta-analysis of 15 cohort studies”. PloS one6 (2014): e100801-e100801.
- Mahajan A., et al. “Risk factors of type 2 diabetes in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India”. Journal of Biomedical Research 5 (2013): 372-379.
- Hodgkinson AJBjou. “Uric acid disorders in patients with calcium stones”. British Journal of Urology1 (1976): 1-5.
- ALI U and HAKAK I. “Study of Gouty Patients based on Gender, Age and Eating Habits in Kashmir”. European Academic Research10 (2015): 1-8.
- Bhat AHJJoAM, Research DS. “Uric acid a predictor of sepsis in critically ill patients” 6.1 (2018).
- Jammu JJJHE. “A pilot study on recognition and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in north Indian populace of Jammu and Kashmir”. 62.1-3 (2018): 47-57.
- Heinig M and Johnson RJJCCjom. “Role of uric acid in hypertension, renal disease, and metabolic syndrome”. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine12 (2006): 1059.
- Dehghan A., et al. “High serum uric acid as a novel risk factor for type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care2 (2008): 361-362.
- Hu F., et al. “Association of serum uric acid levels with COVID-19 severity”. BMC Endocrine Disorders1 (2021): 1-12.