The Effects of β-Endorphin, the Autonomic Nervous System and the Environment on Suppressing the Growth and Progression of Malignant Tumors (Cancers)
Nishinippori 2-10-12, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Satoru Mihara, Nishinippori 2-10-12, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
May 18, 2023; Published: May 31, 2023
Transplantations of β-endorphin neurons into the hypothalamus in rats suppress the growth and progression of cancers in various tissues and prevent the metastasis of tumors via the suppression of the sympathetic nervous system and the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. A fragrant environment containing a low concentration of α-pinene induces a significant increase in the parasympathetic nervous activity in young adult females, and long-term exposure to that suppresses melanoma growth in mice. Long-term exposure to low concentrations of a homologous series of aliphatic alcohols, phenols, ketones, and their derivatives generally enhance the hypothalamic β-endorphin levels in rats. The enriched environment induces suppression of the sympathetic nervous system and/or activation of the parasympathetic nervous system through decreased leptin expression and secretion as well as releasing β-endorphin and show a suppression of tumor growth in mice.
Moderate-intensity physical activity results in tumor suppression, at least in part through the actions of hypothalamic β-endorphin, which is responsible for a physical effect known as a runner's high.
Keywords: Tumor; Cancer; Enriched Environment; Odor; Autonomic; β-endorphin; Physical Activity
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