Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB) (ISSN: 2582-4473)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Genetic Mutational Status and Tumour-inflammatory Response in Metastatic Cancer: New Implications for Exploring Immunotherapies

Brenna Daily1 and Paul Hartel2*

1Atlantic Technological University, Sligo, Ireland
2Department of Pathology, Sligo University Hospital, Sligo, Ireland

*Corresponding Author: Paul Hartel, Department of Pathology, Sligo University Hospital, Sligo, Ireland.

Received: May 30, 2022; Published: July 14, 2022


While genetic mutations can offer targeted therapy for some cancer patients, many patients have tumours that lack currently utilised genetic treatment targets. With the advent of immune-modulator cancer therapy, we evaluated the relationship between genetic mutation status and tumour-associated inflammatory response in 56 needle biopsies of tumour metastases. From histopathology clinical audit data, we documented the range of metastatic tumour types in adult female and male patients and noted their histologic and molecular characteristics. Surrounding inflammatory response to these tumours was graded according to severity. Presence of genetic mutations used in targeted treatment was associated with weak inflammation while absence of these mutations was associated with brisk inflammation. As targeted therapy is not available for patients with tumours lacking specific genetic mutations, it is worth exploring whether they may benefit from immune-based treatments.

Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Tumour-inflammatory Response; Genetic Mutation; Targeted Therapy; Immune Modulation


  1. Ganesh K., et al. “Targeting metastatic cancer”. Nature Medicine1 (2021): 34-44.
  2. Faubert B., et al. “Metabolic reprogramming and cancer progression”. Science368 (2020): 6487.
  3. O'Shaughnessy J., et al. “Extending Survival with Chemotherapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer”. The Oncologist 3 (2005): 20-29.
  4. Khan SA., et al. “EGFR Gene Amplification and KRAS Mutation Predict Response to Combination Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer”. Pathology and Oncology Research3 (2017): 673-677.
  5. Soeda H., et al. “Clinical usefulness of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations as predictive markers of cetuximab efficacy in irinotecan- and oxaliplatin-refractory Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer”. International Journal of Clinical Oncology4 (2013): 670-677.
  6. da Cunha Santos G., et al. ”EGFR mutations and lung cancer”. Annual Review of Pathology 6 (2011): 49-69.
  7. Kim A., et al. “The discovery of vemurafenib for the treatment of BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma”. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery9 (2016): 907-916.
  8. Lei X., et al. “Immune cells within the tumor microenvironment: Biological functions and roles in cancer immunotherapy”. Cancer Letter470 (2020): 126-133.
  9. Xia Y., et al. “Differential effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on glycocalyx of endothelial and tumor cells and potential targets for tumor metastasis”. APL Bioengineering1 (2022): 016101.
  10. Apollonio B., et al. “Understanding the Immune-Stroma Microenvironment in B Cell Malignancies for Effective Immunotherapy”. Frontiers in Oncology 11 (2021): 626818.
  11. Kunkle C., et al. ”The Role of the Programmed Death Receptor-1/Programmed Death Ligand-1: Immunologic Checkpoint in Human Papillomavirus–Associated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma”. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine6 (2018): 719-720.
  12. Marginean E., et al. “Is There a Role for Programmed Death Ligand-1 Testing and Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer with Microsatellite Instability? Part I—Colorectal Cancer: Microsatellite Instability, Testing, and Clinical Implications”. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine1 (2017): 17-25.
  13. Santoiemma PP., et al. “Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer”. Cancer Biology Therapy6 (2015): 807-820.
  14. Väyrynen JP., et al. “Characteristics and significance of colorectal cancer associated lymphoid reaction”. International Journal of Cancer9 (2014): 2126-2135.
  15. Maoz A. “The Crohn's-Like Lymphoid Reaction to Colorectal Cancer-Tertiary Lymphoid Structures with Immunologic and Potentially Therapeutic Relevance in Colorectal Cancer”. Frontiers in Immunology10 (2019): 1884.
  16. Page N., et al. “Clinical and Pathological Parameters of Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Colorectal Cancer”. Atlantic Technological University, Galway, BSc Medical Science (2019).


Citation: Brenna Daily and Paul Hartel. “Genetic Mutational Status and Tumour-inflammatory Response in Metastatic Cancer: New Implications for Exploring Immunotherapies" Acta Scientific Cancer Biology 6.5 (2022): 09-12.


Copyright: © 2022 Brenna Daily and Paul Hartel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.183

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US