Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB) (ISSN: 2582-4473)

Observational Study Volume 6 Issue 4

Comparison of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer Patients Presentation at Regional Cancer Center: An Observational Study

Simrandeep Singh1*, Tejinder Paul Singh2, KK Harsh3, SL Jakhar4, Neeti Sharma5 and HS Kumar6

1Assistant Professor, Department of Radiotherapy, G. G. S Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, India
2Medical Officer, Department of Surgery, Mata Kaushalya Hospital, Patiala, India
3Associate Professor, Department of Radiotherapy, ATRCTRI, Bikaner, India
4Professor, Department of Radiotherapy, ATRCTRI, Bikaner, India
5Professor and Head, Department of Radiotherapy, ATRCTRI, Bikaner, India
6Senior Professor, Department of Radiotherapy, ATRCTRI, Bikaner, India

*Corresponding Author: Simrandeep Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Radiotherapy, G. G. S Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, India.

Received: March 28, 2022; Published: June 02, 2022

Abstract

Introduction: The higher prevalence of oral cavity cancer among males in India is attributed to the habit of tobacco chewing. In many states of India, there is addiction of Tobacco chewing in form of Zarda and Betel Quid placed under the tongue or at gingiva, which causes ulceration/lesion of underlying tissue. Tobacco chewing and smoking has synergistic effects to cause head and neck malignancy especially oral cavity and oropharynx. Oral cavity lesions are visible to the patients and oropharynx disease presentation is symptom based. Due to lack of awareness among tobacco chewers and smokers in rural as well as urban population, most of the patients present to hospital with heavy burden of disease.

Material and Method: This is a retrospective observational study conducted in regional cancer center Acharya Tulsi Regional cancer Treatment and Research Institute (ATRCTRI), Bikaner. A total of 88 patients were enrolled in this study to observe the pattern of disease. All patients who had proven malignancy in oral cavity and oropharynx were registered in Department of Radiotherapy. All patients after diagnostic and metastatic work up were staged according to TNM classification.

Results: Mean age of the patients in this study was 55.6 years. Male to female ratio was 2.67:1. Oral cavity patients were 42 (47.7%) and oropharynx patients were 46 (52.3%). In present study, SCC histopathology was seen in 62 (70.5%) patients and Adenocarcinoma histopathology in 26 (29.5%) patients. In oral cavity, stage I 6 (14.3%) patients, stage II 9 (21.4%) patients, stage III 11 (26.2%) patients and stage IV 16 (38.1%) patients respectively. Out of stage IV 16 patients, 9 (21.4%) patients were IVa and 7 (16.7%) patients were IVb.

In oropharynx, stage I 3 (6.5%) patients, stage II 7 (15.2%) patients, stage III 16 (34.8%) patients and stage IV 20 (43.5%) patients respectively. Out of stage IV 20 patients, 12 (26.1%) patients were IVa and 8 (17.4%) patients were IVb.

Discussion: Head and neck malignancy is the most common malignancy in India among males. This scenario is totally different from rest of the world, where the prevalence of lip and oral cavity cancer was not among the five most common malignancy1. This is because of the habit of tobacco chewing, smokeless tobacco in India. Pan, gutkha, zarda are considered as smokeless tobacco, which is generally placed under the tongue or near the gingiva buccal sulcus. It starts the process of chronic inflammation leading to ulceration. In India, among the users of smokeless tobacco, due to lack of awareness, most of the patients present at advanced stage. Besides the oral cavity lesions are visible to patients. In oropharynx part, patients presented to hospital when the symptoms become more aggressive.

Conclusion: Oral cavity cancer patients present earlier as compared to oropharynx tumor patients. This is because the oral cavity lesions are visible to patients and easy to locate but presentation of oropharynx tumors is symptoms based. When tumor shows its symptoms, at that time it can be recognized by the patient. Furthermore, among Indian rural population, due to lack of awareness, even oral cavity patients present at a later stage.

Keywords: Oral Cavity; Oropharynx; Symptoms; Stage

References

  1. “GLOBOCAN” (2020).
  2. AJCC, TNM Staging system (8th ed). (2017).
  3. Smita Asthana., et al. “Association of Smokeless Tobacco Use and Oral Cancer: A Systematic Global Review and Meta-Analysis”. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 9 (2019): 1162-1171.
  4. Pankaj Chaturvedi., et al. “Oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in background of oral submucous fibrosis: a clinicopathologically distinct disease”. Head Neck10 (2013): 1404-1409.
  5. Bhawna Gupta., et al. “Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case–control study from India”. Cancer Epidemiology 51 (2017): 7-14.
  6. Aamod D Shrestha., et al. “Prevalence and incidence of oral cancer in low- and middleincome countries: A scoping review”. European Journal of Cancer Care (2019): e 13207.
  7. Kailash Chandra Pandey., et al. “Stage-wise presentation of non-metastatic head and neck cancer: an analysis of patients from the Kumaon hills of India”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 12 (2014): 4957-4961.

Citation

Citation: Simrandeep Singh., et al. “Comparison of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx Cancer Patients Presentation at Regional Cancer Center: An Observational Study" 6.4 (2022): 01-04.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Simrandeep Singh., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.183

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US